International Geological Correlation Program #464
Continental Shelves during the Last Glacial Cycle:
Knowledge and Applications

European Regional Conference, 2003

Gda nsk - Jastarnia, Poland  8 –10 May 2003
Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology and PGI Centre of excellence: research on abiotic environment


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Sponsors and supporting bodies

UNESCO/IUGS for IGCP-464 project
INQUA Commission on Sea-level Changes & Coastal Evolution
Polish Geological Institute Centre of Excellence: Research on Abiotic Environment “REA
Organizing committee

Chairman: Dr. Szymon Uscinowicz, Polish national representative for the IGCP Project No. 464
e-mail. (
Chairman of the Conference Scientific Council: Prof. dr. Leszek Marks
Members: Dr. Joanna Zachowicz, M.Sc. Regina Kramarska
Secretary: M.Sc. Jakub Zmuda (jzmuda@pgi.gda pl)

Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology, Koscierska 5 St., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland
Tel. +48 58 5542909 ext 321, Fax. +48 58 5542910 ext 233
Conference Topics

Abrupt sea-level changes in semi-enclosed basins. This is the main topic of the meeting and case histories will be presented by researchers working on the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia).
Palaeogeography: effects of sea-level rise on formation of continental land-bridges, narrowing or closure of straits and seaways, changes to littoral dynamics, sea/land ratio, etc.
Palaeoclimate: indications on palaeohydrology, deglaciation patterns.
Palaeomorphology: coasts and shelf morphology evolution evolution since Last Glacial Maximum
Stratigraphy: possible definition of a sea-level fall/lowstand limit, application of sequence-stratigraphic concepts to the last eustatic cycle. Is the actualism applicable to continental shelf study?
Palaeoecology: palynology, diatoms and macro- and microfaunal changes.
Heritage on human culture: witnesses of environmental changes and shelf narrowing on human pre-history, disappearance of flat coastal areas suitable for cultural/population transmigrations, constant flooding situation.


DAY ONE,  May 7, 2003 (Wednesday)

Arrival to Gdansk and registration at Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology, Gdansk Oliwa, Koscierska St. 5.

19.00: Departure from Gdansk (PGI office) to Jastarnia (Hotel Lazur, Jastarnia, Mickiewicza 133 St.)

21.00: Dinner

DAY TWO, May 8, 2003 (Thursday)

08.00: Breakfast and registration

09.00 – 09.20: Opening of the Conference -
                    welcome by PGI Director -
                    introduction to IGCP 464 project by Allan Chivas

SESSION 1    (chairman: Allan Chivas)
09.20 – 09.40: Wolfram Lemke, Jorn Bo Jensen, Ole Bennike, Andrzej Witkowski, Jan Harff, Rudolf Endler, Anto Kuijpers, Harald Lübke
            Towards the reconstruction of the Littorina transgression within the Southwestern Baltic Sea
09.40 – 10.00: Jorn Bo Jensen, Wolfram Lemke, Ole Bennike, Andrzej Witkowski, Anto Kuijpers.
            The Late Glacial And Holocene pathway to the Baltic: a sequence-stratigraphical approach
10.00 – 10.20: Gosta Hoffmann
            Postglacial to Holocene sedimentation history and palaeogeographical development of a barriere spit (Pudagla Lowland; Usedom Island; SW Baltic coast)
10.20 – 10.40: Reinhard Lampe, Wolfgang Janke
            The Holocene sea-level rise in the southern Baltic as reflected in coastal peat sequences
10.40 – 11.10: Coffee break

SESSION 2 (chairman: Jan Harff)
11.10 – 11.30: Karol Rotnicki, Anna Pazdur
            Stages of high and low relative sea-level of the Southern Baltic on the Polish middle-coast and their age
11.30 – 11.50: Alar Rosentau
            Reflection of glacial rebound in the early Baltic Ice Lake shorelines in Estonia
11.50 – 12.10: Juri Vassiljev, L. Saarse, A. Miidel
            Litorina transgression around the Gulf of Finland

12.10 – 12.30: Discussion

12.30 – 14.00: Lunch

SESSION 3 (chairman: Leszek Marks)
14.00 – 14.20: D.V. Dorokhov, E. A. Romanova, M.V. Rudenko, Vadim.V. Sivkov.
            Experimental paleoreconstruction of the Baltic Sea bottom relief using GIS-tools
14.20 – 14.40: Vladimir A. Zhamoida, Mikhail A. Spiridonov
            The natural and anthropogenic features of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland
14.40 – 15.00: Kuldev Ploom, Tarmo Kiipli
            Environmental changes during Younger Dryas/Holocene transition recorded in sediment sections from southern part of Gulf of Finland
15.00 – 15.20: Józef Edward Mojski
            The Baltic – past, present and future. An outlook of geologist

15.20 – 15.50: General discussion

15.50 – 16.20: Coffee break

INTRODUCTION TO POSTER SESSION (chairman: Francesco Chiocci)

18.30 Dinner

DAY THREE, May 9, 2003 (Friday)

08.00: Breakfast

SESSION 4 (chairman: J. Edward Mojski)
09.00 – 09.20: Tomasz Boski, D. Moura, C.Veiga-Pires, S. Camacho, E. Good, F. Gonzalez Villa, O. Polvillo
            Postglacial sea level rise in estuaries and lagoons Of Algarve, S.Portugal. A multiproxy approach
09.20 – 09.40: Eric Fouache, Alexei Porotov, Christel Müller, Youri Gorlov
            The Role of Neo-tectonics in the variation of the relative mean sea level throughout the last 6000 years on the Taman peninsula (Black Sea, Azov Sea, Russia)
09.40 – 10.00: Roberto A. Violante, José Luis Cavallotto and Gerardo Parker
            Samborombón Bay, eastern Argentina: an example of fluvial-marine interaction and coastal progradation in a low-energy, shallow, semi-enclosed basin
10.00 – 10.20: João M. Alveirinho Dias, R. Gonzalez, Ó. Ferreira, T. Boski
            Natural versus anthropoid causes in variations of sand export from river basins: an example from the Guadiana River mouth (southwestern Iberia)

10.20 – 11.00: Coffee break

SESSION 5 (chairman: Tomasz Boski)
11.00 – 11.20: Roberto A. Violante
            The coastal lagoon of Mar Chiquita, Argentina
11.20 – 11.40: Szymon Uscinowicz
            Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Southern Baltic transgressions
11.40 - 12.00: Jan Harff, Wolfram Lemke, Reinhard Lampe, Friedrich Lüth, Harald Lübke, Michael Meyer, Franz Tauber
            Sinking Coasts:  Geosphere, Ecosphere and Anthroposphere of the Holocene Southern Baltic Sea

12.00 – 12.30: Discussion
12.30 – 14.00: Lunch

SESSION 6 (chairman: Jorn Bo Jensen)

14.00 – 14.20: Allan R. Chivas
            Land bridges and isolation basins at the Last Glacial Maximum around Australia
14.20 – 14.40: Gilles Lericolais, Irina Popescu, Nicolae Panin, William Ryan, François Guichard
            Last Rapid Flooding in the Black Sea
14.40 – 15.00:. Nils-Axel Mörner
            Sea Level Changes in the past, at present and in the near-future global aspects and special Baltic characteristics

15.00 – 15.20: General discussion

15.20 – 16.00: Coffee break

16.00 – 17.10: Introduction to the Excursion: 
            Szymon Uscinowicz, Regina Kramarska, Joanna Zachowicz Geology and evolution of the Puck Lagoon and Hel Peninsula

            Iwona Pomian and Leszek __czy_ski Puck Medieval Harbour (video presentation)
            Karol Rotnicki Geology and evolution of the _eba Lagoon and Barrier

18.00: Conference Dinner

DAY FOUR,  May 10, 2003 (Saturday)

08.00: Breakfast

09.00 – 09.30: Passage from Jastarnia to Rzucewo
09.30 – 10.30: Rzucewo geological and archaeological site
10.30 – 10.50: Passage to Puck
10.50 – 11.40: Puck geological and archaeological site
11.40 – 12.50: Passage to Smo_dzino

12.50 – 14.00: Lunch

14.00 – 14.20: Passage to Kluki
14.20 – 15.00: Visit to open air ethnographic museum
15.00 – 15.40: Boat cruise across the _eba Lagoon to moving dunes
15.40 – 18.00: Walk across moving dunes and forest in S_owi_ski National Park
18.00 – 19.15: Passage from _eba to Jastarnia

19.30: Dinner

DAY FIVE,  May 11, 2003 (Sunday)

08.00: Breakfast

09.00: Departure to Gdansk

List of participants

Bozena Bogaczewicz-Adamczak     Gdansk University, Institute of Oceanography Al. Pi_sudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland Phone: +48 58 660 16 56 Fax: +48 58 620 21 65 e-mail:
Vadim L. Boldyrev Russian Academy of Sciences, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Atlantic Branch Prospect Mira 1, 236000 Kaliningrad, Russia Phone: 0112 453511 Fax: 0112 273945 e-mail:
Tomasz Boski CIMA – Centro de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas St., 8000-117 Faro, Portugal Phone: 351 289 800926 Fax: 289818353 e-mail:
Albertas Bitinas Geological Survey of Lithuania, 35 S.Konarskio St., 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania, Phone.: +370 5 2 335 323, e-mail:
José Luis Cavallotto Argentina Hydrographic Office, Department of Oceanography, Division of Marine Geology and Geophysics. Av. Montes de Oca 2124, (C1270ABV) Buenos Aires, Argentina Phone: 54-11-4301-3091 Fax: 54-11-4301-2918 e-mail:
Francesco Latino Chiocci Dipartimento Scienze della terra, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Roma, Italy Phone: 39 06 44585075 Fax: 39 06 44585080 e-mail
Allan R. Chivas School of Geosciences, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia Phone: 02 4221 3841 Fax: 02 4221 4250 e-mail:
Aldona Damu_yte Geological Survey of Lithuania, 35 S.Konarskio St., 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania, Phone: +370 5 2 139 055 Fax: +370 5 2336156 e-mail:
João M. Alveirinho Dias CIMA, FCMA/ University of Algarve Campus de Gambelas St., 800-139 Faro, Portugal Phone: +351 289 800926 Fax: +289818353 e-mail
Eric Fouache Université de Paris XII, Département de Géographie 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil, France Phone : 00 33 2 35 98 34 03 Fax : 00 33 2 35 65 41 00 e-mail:
Jan Harff Baltic Sea Research Institute Seestr.15, D-18119 Rostock, Germany Phone: +49-381-5197-351 Fax: +49-381-5197-352 e-mail :
Gosta Hoffmann University of Greifswald, Inst. G. Geol. Wiss. Jahnstrasse 17 a, 17487 Greifswald, Germany Phone: 0049(0)3834864559 Fax: 0049(0)3834864572 e-mail :
Jørn Bo Jensen Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark Phone +45 38142904 Fax +45 38142050 e-mail :
Tarmo Kiipli Mining Institute of Tallinn Technical University, Kopli 82 St., 10412 Tallinn, Estonia Phone: +372 620 3856 Fax: +3726720091 e-mail:
Regina Kramarska Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology Ko_cierska 5 st., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 221 Fax: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 233 e-mail:
Danuta Król Archaeological Museum Mariacka 25/26St. 80-958,Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 3015031 Fax: +48 58 3015228 e-mail:
Jarmila Krzymi_ska Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology Ko_cierska 5 st., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 554 2909 Fax: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 233 e-mail:
Reinhard Lampe University of Greifswald, Institute of Geography Jahnstrasse 16, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany Phone: +49 3834 864521 Fax: +49 3834 864501
Ma_gorzata Lata_owa University of Gdansk, Lab. of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Al. Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 341-20-16 Fax: +48 58 341-20-16 e-mail:
Gilles Lericolais IFREMER - Centre de Brest DRO/GM - BP 70, F-29280 PLOUZANE cedex, FRANCE Phone: (+33 0) 298 22 42 48 Fax: (+33 0) 298 22 45 70 e-mail:
Wolfram Lemke Institution: Baltic Sea Research Institute Street: Seestr. 15 Postal code: D-18119 Rostock-Warnemünde Germany Phone: + 49 381 5197 360 Fax: + 49 381 5197 352
Danuta Joanna Michczy_ska Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes Krzywoustego 2P St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland Phone: +48 32 237 24 88 Fax: +48 32 237 22 54 e-mail:
Leszek Marks Polish Geological Institute Rakowiecka 4 st., 00-975 Warszawa, Poland Phone: +48 22 849 53 51 e-mail:
Gra_yna Miotk-Szpiganowicz Gdansk University, Department of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology Dmowskiego 16a st., 80-952 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 3410061 e-mail:
J. Edward Mojski Gdansk University, Institut of Oceanography Al. Pi_sudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland Phone: +48 58 620 21 01 Fax: +48 58 620 21 65 Regina Mork_nait_ Institute of Geology and Geography _ev_enkos 13 st., Vilnius, Lithuania e-mail:
Nils-Axel Mörner Stockholm University, Paleogeophysics & Geodynamics SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 (0)8 7906771 Fax: +46 (0)8 7906777 e-mail:
Anna Pazdur Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes Krzywoustego 2P St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland Phone: +48 32 237 24 88 Fax: +48 32 237 22 54 e-mail:
Anna P_dziszewska University of Gdansk, Lab. of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Al. Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 341-20-16 Fax: +48 58 341-20-16 E-mail:
Kuldev Ploom Geological Survey of Estonia 82 Kadaka Street, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia Phone: (372) 672 0070 Fax: (372) 672 0091 e-mail
Iwona Pomian Maritime Museum O_owianka 9/13 St. 80-751 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 301-86-11 Fax: +48 58 301-84-53 e-mail:
Alar Rosentau University of Tartu, Institute of Geology, Vanemuise 46 St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia Phone: (372 7) 375836 Fax: (372 7) 375836 e-mail:
Stanislaw Rudowski Gdansk University, Institut of Oceanography Al. Pi_sudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland Phone: +48 58 620 21 01 Fax: +48 58 620 21 65 e-mail:
Vadim Sivkov Russian Academy of Sciences, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Atlantic Branch Prospect Mira 1, 236 000 Kaliningrad, Russia Phone: 7-0112-516162 Fax: 7-0112-516162 e-mail:
Mikhail A. Spiridonov Institution:_All-Russia Geological Institute (VSEGEI) Sredny Prospect 74, 199106 Sankt Petersburg, Russia Phone : + 7 812 328 91 59 Fax : + 7 812 328 9159
Joanna _wi_ta University of Gdansk, Lab. of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany Al. Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 341-20-16 Fax: +48 58 341-20-16 e-mail:
Martin Theuerkauf Institute of Botany, University Greifswald Grimmer Str. 88, 17487 Greifswald, Germany Tel: +49 03831 864135 Fax: + 49 03831 864114 e-mail:
Szymon Uscinowicz Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology Ko_cierska 5 st., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 554 2909 ext.321 Fax: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 233 e-mail:
Jüri Vassiljev Tallinn Technical University, Institute of Geology Estonia pst. 7, 10143 Tallinn, Estonia Phone: +372 6 454 708 Fax: +372 6 312 074 e-mail:
Roberto Antonio Violante Argentina Hydrographyc Office Av. Montes De Oca 2124, (C1270ABV) Buenos Aires, Argentina Phone: (54-11) 4301-3091 Fax: (54-11) 4301-2918 e-mail:
Hanna Winter Polish Geological Institute Rakowiecka 4 st., 00- 975 Warszawa, Poland Phone: +48 22 849 53 51 e-mail:
Ma_gorzata Witak  GdanskUniversity, Institute of Oceanography Al. Pi_sudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland Phone: +48 58 620 21 01 Fax: +48 58 620 21 65 e-mail:
Joanna Zachowicz Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology Ko_cierska 5 st., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 204 Fax: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 233 e-mail:
Vladimir A. Zhamoida Institution:_All-Russia Geological Institute (VSEGEI) Sredny Prospect 74, 199106 Sankt Petersburg, Russia Phone : + 7 812 328 91 59 Fax : + 7 812 328 9159 e-mail :
Jakub Zmuda Polish Geological Institute, Branch of Marine Geology Ko_cierska 5 st., 80-328 Gdansk, Poland Phone: +48 58 554 2909 ext.317 Fax: +48 58 554 2909 ext. 233 e-mail:



Geological Survey of Lithuania, 35 S.Konarskio St., 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania, tel.: +370 5 2 335 323, e-mail:

The Lithuanian coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is changing due to two main factors: natural processes and human influence. The rising of the sea level, the activity of neotectonic movements of the earth’s crust blocks, extremely strong storms (e.g. “Anatoly” cyclone) and dune deflation are the main natural processes changing the “face” of the coastal zone. The second factor – human activity – includes the development of health resort and tourism industry, reconstruction and deepening of the Klaip_da port, building and exploitation of B_ting_ oil terminal, damping in the sea, shipping accidents. During the last century the second factor became more and more powerful and sometimes started to prevail against the natural processes. As a rule, the total influence of these two factors into the Lithuanian coastal zone is expressed by different damages: in some places the territory of Lithuania is decreasing (sea transgression), the sand is washed from the seashore, the pollution increasing after different accidents, etc.
The present-day situation of the Lithuanian coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is reflected in the “Geological Atlas of the Lithuanian Coast of the Baltic Sea”. The partners of this project are the Vilnius University, the Institute Geology and Geography, the Klaip_da University. The area of investigations contains 100-300 metres width belt of coastal plain and nearshore zone up to 15-20 metres deep. The complex of investigations consists of geological and geomorphologic mapping of coastal plain (by drilling of shallow boreholes), echolocation of nearshore zone and sampling of bottom sediments, repeated grade of monitoring profiles, estimation of the anthropogenic load of coastal zone, lithological analysis of sediments and dating by methods of absolute geochronology (radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence). The geological-geomorphological map and the map of anthropogenic load of coastal zone at a scale of 1:5000 together with adequate explanatory note are the main result of this project. All the results of investigation are prepared as specialised digital databases. The Atlas would be a background for further coastal management and integrated monitoring system of coastal zone.


T. Boski 1, ( D. Moura 1, C.Veiga-Pires1, S. Camacho1, E..Good F.Gonzalez Villa2 and O.Polvillo 2
1CIMA – Centro de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Algarve, 8000-117 Faro, Portugal 2Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, IRNAS-CSIC P.O. Box 1052, 41080-Seville, Spain

The presented study embraced analyses of foraminifera assemblages, mineralogy, granulometry, organic biomarkers and elemntal chemical analyses in the sediments from two major estuaries of S.Portuguese coasts.
The Boina-Arade Estuary lies in a junction of 2 valleys, in the confluence of two rivers draining Southern slopes of the world famous nepheline syenite massive intruded into the Carboniferous schists. The paleovalley of Boina-Arade which experiences terminal stage of infilling, is cut into calcareous rocks and therefore its maximum depth does not exceed 30m. We present here data from 2 boreholes drilled across the Holocene sedimentary sequence. The borehole P5 is situated in the 2km from se river junction in the terminal, intertidal part of Boina valley, a high gradient mountain river renowned for its flash–floods. The Holocene sedimentary record embraces about 8000 yrs and starts (as in case of Guadiana) with a series of sand/gravel and clay intercalations which correspond to transitional, fluvial/estuarine, period. Sharp boundaries separating texturally distinct layers indicate pulses of fluvial sediments transported and deposited during occasional floods. However, due to the incertitude of 14C data it is difficult to ascribe time boundaries to this transitional horizon, which is followed by a 6 m thick clayey sequence, rich in foraminifera and accumulated under the mudflat regime. This low energy environment lasted until ca 6500 yrs cal BP when the estuary started to fill with a coarser material of inland and coastal origin. There is a rather similar sequence of events inferred from the sedimentary record in the borehole P2 in Arade valley. However because Arade valley is more open to the sea and not affected by mountain flash floods, the 8 m thick mudflat horizon dates back to ca 8000 yrs cal. BP. It has abundant benthic foraminifera fauna in which Haynesina Germanica, Trochamina inflata, and Cibicides lobatulus predominate. As observed in P5 borehole, sand and silt infilling was dominating during the Upper Holocene, in part due to the anthropogenic causes (Chester & James, 1991).
Several cored boreholes that reached the pre-Holocene substratum were drilled in recent years in order to recognize the architecture of sedimentary facies and to quantify the organic carbon content trapped in sediments accumulating during the drowning of the terminal Guadiana fluvial valley which is cut deeply into the impervious and faulted Upper Carboniferous schists and graywacks. The samples which were used in the present study were obtained from a bore-hole drilled down to ca. 53 meters near the confluence of Beliche and Guadiana Rivers, located in the intertidal zone of the latter. Three 14C datings performed on the recovered samples indicate that the entire sedimentary sequence accumulated over a period of ca 13-14 kyrs, representing one of the longest postglacial sedimentary records in the non glaciated areas. About 80% of the Holocene sedimentary sequence was accumulated in the first phase of the sea level rise, with a rate of ca 80 cm per century, which terminated ca. 6700 cal. yrs BP and was followed by a much slower rate of vertical accretion. The 10 lowermost meters, of this sequence which is lying on top of a polymictic gravels, are mostly sandy with intercalation of silty clay. The basal sands are mineralogically and texturally immature but become progressively more quartzic and devoid of mica towards the top of the horizon . The foraminifera fauna is almost absent in this interval and when present, it consists of scarce inner linings of benthic foraminifera. This environment maybe interpreted as belonging to the transitional fluvial – estuarine phase observed also in the basal sections of other boreholes in Guadiana area (Boski et al., 2002). In the remaining upper, almost entirely fine grained section of the borehole, marking differences were found with respect to several faunistic and geochemical parameters.
The lower segment extending to ca –15 m depth is characterized by a low abundance of calcareous benthic foraminifera, lower sulfur content and predominance of phytoplancton molecular biomarkers (Gonzalez Vila et all. , 2002) and the mean content of organic carbon is 1.1%. These features may be representative of mudflat facies experiencing frequent submergence and in which reducing conditions prevailed. The upper segment which comprises the top 15 meters of the sediment column is very rich in calcareous benthic foraminifera, high in sulfur and in resin biomarkers. High sulfur content indicates alternatively either the estensive sulfate reducing processes or precipitation of gypsum in the semienclosed ponds. The mean organic Carbon content is about 1.5%.
Despite the marked differences in the pattern and chronology of Holocene infilling of the estuarine valleys in S. Portugal which are caused by hydrodynamic, topographic and morphological factors it is possible to recognize several phases of environmental change acting on a regional/global scale and namely:

BOSKI T., MOURA D., CAMACHO S., DUARTE R.D.N., SCOTT D.B., VEIGA-PIRES C., PEDRO P., SANTANA P. (2002) - Postglacial sea level rise and sedimentary response in the Guadiana Estuary, Portugal/Spain border. Sedimentary Geology,150,103-121
CHESTER, D.K., JAMES,P.A.,(1991). Holocene Alluviation in the Algarve, southern Portugal; case for an anthropogenic cause. Journal of Archeological Science,18, 73-87. GONZALEZ-VILA F.J., POLVILLO O., BOSKI T. AND ANDRÉS J.R. (2002) - A biomarker approach to the organic matter deposited in coastal estuarine sediments during Holocene: a case study in the Guadiana River estuary. Organic Geochemistry (in press).
GOY, J. L. , ZAZO, C., SOMOZA, L., DABRIO,C.J. LARIO , J., BORJA, F., SIERRO, F. J., FLORES, J. A., (1996). Global and regional factors controlling changes of coastlines in South Iberia (Spain) during Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 15, 773 –780.


This reserach was financed by Fundação para a Ciência e para a Tecnologia, within the framework of REFLECS project, POCTI/CTA/11123/98


Cavallotto, José Luis and Violante, Roberto A.
Argentina Hydrographic Office, Department of Oceanography, Division of Marine Geology and Geophysics. Av. Montes de Oca 2124 (C1270ABV) Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

The northern patagonian gulfs in eastern Argentina: San Matías, San José and Nuevo, are located between 40º 40' 20'' and 43º S (see figure). They are semi-enclosed basins with areas of 18,130; 818 and 2,477 km2, respectively, and a maximum water depth of 190 m, which is deeper than the adjacent continental shelf. San Matías and Nuevo gulfs are open to the sea through entrances narrower than its inner parts and also shallower with a sill at a depth of - 40/-70 m. In the Nuevo gulf an incised channel connects the sill with the central part of the basin. On the other hand, San José gulf is not directly connected to the sea.
Gulf coasts have cliffs higher than 80 m cut in continental to marine Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This abrupt relief extends underwater down to 100 m depth and is partially covered by modern sands and gravels that also appear in the marginal protected beaches. The deepest parts below 100-120 m are smooth and covered with silty and clayey sediments whose thickness is around 40 m according to acoustic information, although piston cores recovered there don't exceed 6 m. Biogenic content of the cores indicates a marine environment for this upper part of the sedimentary sequence.
The origin of the basins has been related to subaerial processes (mainly eolian deflation, Mouzo et al., 1978) as occurred in other continental depressions of Patagonia during very dry climatic periods, and then they were invaded by the sea. However, no evidences exist at present concerning the timing of both the excavation and the first flooding by marine waters. Having into account that the gulfs are located in the easternmost part of the country, it is reasonable to think that the progressive landward migration of the coastline due to processes of coastal erosion, could have reached the previously excavated depressions at a given moment of the evolutive history.
Morphological, sedimentological and biological evidences indicate that the gulfs were inundated when the sill was overpassed by the sea level (Mouzo et al., 1978) during the post-LGM transgression (about 12 ka BP), but there are at present no indicators of previous floodings during other pre-Holocene high-stands.
As a result, the gulfs behaved as lakes during low-stands of sea-level when they had no sea influence, and as marine gulfs during previous high-stands, accompanying the climatic phases that induced the regressive and transgressive events in a similar way as in the Gulf of Carpentaria - Australia (Chivas et al., 2001).
Research activities aimed to study the sedimentary sequence are at present being initiated in order to define ancient positions of lakes and sea levels and to interpretate the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental variations during the regional evolution .


Chivas, A., García, A., Van Der Kaars, S., et al. 2001. Sea-level and environmental change since the last interglacial in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: an overview. Quaternary International 83-85: 19-46.
Mouzo, F., Garza, M. L., Izquierdo, J. F., Zibecchi, R. O., 1978. Rasgos de la Geología del Golfo Nuevo (Chubut). Acta Oceanográfica Argentina. 2 (1): 69-91.


Aldona Damusyte
Geological Survey of Lithuania, 35 S.Konarskio St., 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania, tel.: +370 5 2 139 055, e-mail:

Geological structure of Quaternary of the West Lithuania is closely related to the Baltic Sea, i.e. its geological development from the Baltic Ice Lake up to the present-day sea. A great number of new data has been collected during the various geological investigations of the Lithuanian Maritime region in the last decade. It enabled to develop new ideas about geological history of this region during the Late Glacial and Holocene period, to compile more detailed palaeogeographic reconstructions.
Sediments of the Baltic Ice Lake, the Ancylus Lake, the Litorina Sea and Post-Litorina Sea are reliably detected in the Lithuanian Maritime region on the basis of complex methods. Coastal positions and sediments of the Baltic Ice Lake, the Litorina Sea and Post-Litorina Sea are traced on the onshore of the Baltics. The water level of the Yoldia Sea and the Ancylus Lake was lower if compared with present-day sea level, so coastal lines of these basins are covered by water.
The Litorina Sea – one of the widespread Baltic Sea developing stages – left the most significant remarks on the Lithuanian coast, but the coastlines are best expressed in the northern part of area. Results of geochronological, paleobotanic, paleontological, lithological analysis, examination of sediment’s sequences brought to the conclusion that water level of the Litorina Sea was unstable: it is possible to separate sediment complexes of a few transgressions and regressions. According to the results of investigations of diatoms, molluscs and its isotopic composition, the coastal zone of the Litorina Sea was dual. It was an open coast sea with brackish water in the northern part of the region and a semiclosed freshwater lagoon in the southern part. The peculiarities of the Litorina Sea at the Lithuanian coast are presented in the set of palaeogeographic maps.


J.M.A. Dias1, R. Gonzalez2, Ó. Ferreira1, & T. Boski1
1 FCMA/CIMA, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 Faro, Portugal,,, 2 CIACOMAR/CIMA, Universidade do Algarve, Avenida 16 de Junho s/n, 8700 Olhão, Portugal,

The supply of sand from river basins to coasts and shelves is vital for the stability of coastlines and the maintenance of shelf sand bodies. Without the steady supply of sand, both of these features would suffer large-scale erosion, with consequences not only for natural habitats, but also the economy.
Initially, sands stemming from river basins are deposited in the vicinity of the river mouths, in areas where the current energy decreases below the threshold of movement, often disturbing the traffic of vessels, as channels and sand banks can quickly change their location.
The O’Bril sand Bank at the mouth of the Guadiana River is a good example for this (Figure 1). Sand is deposited here by the river or the littoral drift from the west. Through the interaction of waves, tides, and the outflow of the Guadiana River, the sand is redistributed either further towards east by the littoral drift, or onto the inner shelf.
This O’Bril bank has been in existence at least since the 16th century, as documente on maps from that time. It reached a minimum extension after the catastrophic flood of January 1876, when it was almost completely flushed out onto the shelf. Subsequently it grew in size again, reaching a maximum extension around 1915. Ever since this period it has seen a steady reduction in area, its mid-river portion at present having a smaller extension than after the flood of 1876 (Figure 2).
The reasons for this dramatic decrease are natural as well as artificial.
The Guadiana River is a river with a low outflow during typically dry summers, and large-scale floods during humid winters. There is a strong relationship between variations in the river volume and climatic variations such as the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (Figure 2). Incidentally, although the flood of 1876 cannot necessarily be attributed to a negative NAO index, the maximum build up of the O’Bril sand bank until 1920 coincides with a prolonged period in the early 20th century of years with a positive NAO.
Equally, if not more important, is the human factor. Since the 1950’s the amount of water stored in dam lakes has rapidly increased (Figure 3). While dams do not largely affect the transport of fines by rivers, they are known to retain large quantities of sand. The regime of natural floods – particularly in a river with periodic flooding such as the Guadiana River – is drastically altered, as water retained in dam lakes can be suddenly released as floodgates are opened to prevent an overflow of lakes. Thus flood events decrease in frequency, but can be severe and sudden if several dam gates are opened simultaneously.
Additionally, the construction of the jetty at the western river mouth from 1972-1975 to stabilize the western riverbank coincided with the end of a long period of intense floods during the 1960’s. It can be speculated that this long period of flooding strongly influenced the decision-making process that led to the construction of the jetty.
For the foreseeable future an increase in the positive NAO index through global warming is expected. The immediate consequence of this will be a reduction in the frequency and magnitude of flood events. Additionally the influence of the human factor can only be expected to rise, as water is needed up-river for irrigation, human consumption, and electricity. The consequence will be a further decrease of sand export from the Guadiana River basin to the shelf and the coast, with severe consequences for ecosystems, and the economy.

Dorokhov D.V., Romanova E. A., Rudenko M.V. and Sivkov V.V.
Russian Academy of Sciences, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Atlantic Branch, Kaliningrad e-mail:

The Baltic Sea bottom relief database (ASCII format, including 60000 data points) has been created in Shrshov Institute of Oceanology (Atlantic Branch). Land topography is from the GLOBE Project, an internationally designed, developed, and independently peer-reviewed global digital elevation model (DEM), at a latitude-longitude grid spacing of 5 arc-minutes (5’) (
Mapping of sea-bottom surface has been carried out using ESRI software ArcInfo and ArcView including the main procedures ranged from data organization up to their analysis and presentation of the results.
The original GIS-model “Bottom Relief of the Baltic Sea” making consisted of the following steps:
1) Nautical charts (1:500000 scale) scanning, coastline digitizing (more than 115000 points), transformation into Mercator and UTM projection.
2) Knots extraction from digitized coastline and their addition to the database.
3) Depths database cleaning and transformation into ArcInfo format, Mercator and UTM projections.
4) The regular grid construction by means of Topogrid Interpolation method with cell size of 500 m.
5) Depths database extra-cleaning by means of deleting the anomalous depths (peaks in regular grid).
6) Coupling depths database with land topography database (from the GLOBE Project).
7) Regular grid construction with optimal cell size of 150 m.
8) The relief map construction using ArcView and isolines smoothing.
 9) Working GRID-files construction by means of Topogrid Interpolation method (with cell size of 150 m) as Mercator (spheroid Krasovsky) and UTM (spheroid WGS84) projections.
10) The 3D-surface construction (TIN) for visualization and subsequent analysis.
Morphological development of the Baltic Sea was predetermined mainly by rising of the earth’s crust (isostatic movement) and climatically controlled eustatic sea-level variations. Based on paleogeographical model of the Baltic Sea region (Romanova, 1991) has been carried out experimental paleomorphological reconstructions using created GIS-model “Bottom Relief of the Baltic Sea”.

ROMANOVA E.A., 1991. Reconstruction of paleoceanological environments of intracontinental sea in Quaternary time (on example the Baltic Sea), Ph.D. thesis (resume), 17 p.


O.V.Dimitrov*, V.A. Drouchits**
* Institute of Oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,  ** Geological Institute - Russian Academy of Sciences,

Seismic acoustic profiling has been carried on in the southern part of Bulgarian Black Sea shelf, in the area of Akhtopol depression, which is located in the eastern part of Burgas Basin. The base of interpretation of the data of this profiling is the following: 1. Regressive sedimentation is characterized by high energy environment and it forms porous sediments with high permeability. Regressive sediments are distinguished by low reflecting capability regarding seismic waves. 2. Transgressive sequences, being formed for a longer time, have as a result a clear structure and low porosity.
Transgressive series are characterized by increasing of seismic waves velocity, increasing of acoustic rigidity and therefore by good reflecting capability. In the continuos seismic profiles transgressive series look as dense bright unbroken lines, and the regressive ones – as broken and pale lines (Dimitrov, 1993).
Seismic stratigraphical analysis allows to determine seismic ensemble (Quaternary sediments) which has been divided to 9 seismic packs (related to transgressive-regressive events). In those of them, which are thicker and well determined, we can distinguish the seismic quantums. A seismic quantum is a single seismic oscillation reflecting both the physical environment characteristics and an episode of sedimentation process (Kunin,1989).
Among the Quaternary sediments of Bulgarian shelf Karangatian (Eem) (seismic pack) ones are distinguished by significant thickness and can be met also in the upper part of the continental slope. The Karangatian transgression seismic pack formation has three stages. The first and the last are related to long stability of sea level, while the middle shows a change of sedimentary conditions. These three stages consist of 7 episodes (7 seismic quantums). Such stratification agrees with the data of the palinological analysis of the Karangatian coastal and continental sequences.
The sediments of Last Glacial Maximum (Novoeuxinian regression in the Black Sea region) are well distinguished in Quaternary sequence of Black Sea by lithology (coarse sediments with large terrigenous and shell components), by fauna (Dreissena polimorpha, Dreissena rostriformis distincta). The lowest level for that time was – 90 m at the early stage. In the Bulgarian shelf the thickness of Novoeuxinian sediments is 3-4 m., with maximum – 11-12 m. The age of Novoeuxinian deposits for Black Sea is determined as 17750±200 – 8550±130. This sequence had three stages of formation (Alekseev at al., 1986). As to palynology Novoeuxinian sequence corresponds to zones according to the investigation of marine sediments: there were steppe vegetation in early stage and forest-steppe in late stage (Mel’nik et al.,1990).
The seismic pack related to Last Glacial maximum is present in all seismic profiles. The toe of this sequence cuts the roof of Karangatian sediments in the shelf and has conformity with them in Akhtopol depression and in the continental slope. Its seismic reflections are the most short. The seismic picture is chaotic. In the area of Akhtopol depression the seismic recording clearly shows regression. Probably this area was out of the shelf, but there were conditions for accumulation like in coastal plain, lagoon, lake or local depression. The detailed investigation of Post Karangatian sediments allows to distinguish some seismic quantums in this seismic pack. Each profile has its own quantity of quantums, it maximum is seven. According to the seismic profiles the time of Last Glacial maximum has three stages, the first of them being a sharp, a short regression, the second - a relative transgression, and the third – an insignificant regression. Usually the first stage consists of one quantum, second – two quantums and third – two quantums.

Alekseev M.N., Chistaykov A.A., Tcherbakov F.A. 1986. Quaternary Geology of Continental Margins. Moscow. Nedra. 241 p.
Dimitrov O.V., 1993. New Regulations from the Seismogram by the Method CSP for Determining the Sedimentation Conditions in the Structure Zone of Rezovo. In: Comptes rendus de L'Academie bulgare des sciences. Sofia. BAS. P.73-76.
Kunin N.Ya.1989. Sedimentation Models and Notion of Seismic Stratigraphy. Bul. MOIP. Geologiya. V.64. P.24-32.
Mel’nik V.I., Krastev T.I., Oltshynskaya A.P. and others. 1990. Stratigraphic Geochronological Data of Late Quaternary Bottom Sediments of Continental Slope in the Western Part of Black Sea. In: Geological Evolution of Western Part of Black Sea in Neogene-Quaternary Time. Sofia. BAS. P. 513-537.


236000, 1 Prospekt Mira, Kaliningrad, Russia, email:

The saline Northern sea water enter to the Gotland Deep from Bornholm Basin through Stolpe (Slupsk) trench. Trench’s depth is 70-80 m, height of its “shores“ (slope) - 20-30 m. At the trench bottom are deposited sands, but in its lowerings - coarse aleurites. The speed of the episodic near-bottom currents sometimes exceeds 100 cm.s-1.
Judging by the availability of two narrow valleys (with the relative depths - 3-10 m) at the eastern end of Stolpe trench, saline water outflow from the trench and flow during Litorina transgression into the Southern - Gotland Deep in the form of two current - strong north-western and weak south-eastern (Zhurbas et al., 1999; Emelyanopv a. Gritsenko, 1999). Because of deep extention by comparison with Stolpe trench stream looses velocity (hydrodynamic barrier) and start becoming free (to discharge) from sand - silt and later - from pelitic material.
At the depth of about 75-80 m at the „estuary Stolpe river” there are no muds. They start depositing at the depth of 80-90 m on hard, morainic substratum. Thickness of Litorina (marine) muds here is about 10-100 cm, however at the distance of 10-20 miles from Stolpe «estuary» at the depth 100-130 m - 590-600 cm. This is the highest thickness of Litorina mud in all Gotland Deep. The rate of sedimentation is 0.6-0.8 mm.y-1.
The wedge shaped forms of the muddy „avandelta“ conditioned by the near-bottom contour current. To the left of near-bottom current occurs outflow (discharge) of current from suspension, under the current and to the right of it - erosion of moraines and nondeposition of sediments. On the surface of muddy field of „avandelta“, there are many number of erosional valleys. Muddy craters are orientated from S-W to N-E, i.e. by the stream direction of near-bottom water. At the “avandelta” bottom practically there is constant location of unusual expressing light dispersion layer which is connected with the increase in content at the bottom of suspension. In some cores the mud is microlaminated.
Muds in the upper layer (0-10 cm) are very moist (70-85%), fluid, reduced, dark green-grey. Deeper moisture decreases (to 60%), muds become soft, plastic, but the color remains the same - dark green - grey, in some places with black hydrotroilite spots or about the layers. Potential Eh usually negative, up to -200 mV. Muds are saturated with methane (NH4), contain free H2S. At the gas exit there are significant deepening at the bottom surface - craters of muddy “volcanoes” or pockmarks. At the „avandelta“ their number is more than 300 (Blashchishin et al., 1990). Form of pockmark - valley manner, sinuous. The length of some pockmarks - up to 5-20 km, width - 50-100 m, depth 1-5 m (from bottom surface). Muds contain 1.60-2.86 Corg , averagely 0.12% P, are rich in N. The contents of Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mo, Ba, are hightened.
Usually in the near-bottom water oxygen was observed. Testified about this is brown (oxydizing) colour of the upper muddy film (some mm), and this is despite the fact that under the film black muds contain free H2S. In connection with that, in muds of “avandelta” constantly preserve the reducing conditions, gas, biogenic components and metals fluxes from pore water of muds in to benthic water will never stop. Consequently, muds of «avandelta» constantly combine with those elements, that are not in the condition of the given physical-chemical situation that are connected in form of authigenic minerals. First of all, this concerns iron (sulphides), manganese (rhodochrosite), phosphorus (vivianite), in lower degree, Ba (barite). 


Eric Fouache*, Alexei Porotov**, Christel Müller***, Youri Gorlov****
* Université de Paris XII, IUF, EA 435, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil, France  ** Geography Laboratory, Moscow State University  *** Université de Paris I, Ecole Française d’Athènes  **** Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Archaeological Institute

Sediments, carbon-dating on sea-shells, allow us to reconstruct the evolution of the average sea level for some 6000 years on the Taman peninsula. The current sea level, regionally, appears to be the highest level ever reached on the peninsula. It seems that for the Annapa area it is possible to propose a sea level curve characterized by a slow, continuous, rising during the past 6000 years. On the Taman peninsula itself, the sedimentary record of this slow ascent has been distorted by a heavy tectonic subsidence, particularly noticeable from 1500-500 BC, which we believe to have been misinterpreted until now, and to be at the origin of the notion of "Phanagorian regression."


Leonard Gajewski, _Ukasz Gajewski, Stanis__W Rudowski, Aleksandra Stachowiak
Department of The Operational Oceanography Maritime Institute In Gda_Sk D_Ugi Targ 41/42 81-830 Gda_Sk E’mail: Leogaj@Im.Gda.Pl

The morphology of the sea bottom of W_adys_awowo area has been presented. It was based on a detailed 1:25 000 scale bathymetric map with isobaths every 0.25 m. A significant differentiation of the bottom relief has been noticed, with changes of level as big as 1-3 meters, mostly connected with the occurrence of specific systems of runnels and ridges.
These are in part relict forms (fluvial and coastal), changed to a certain degree during litorinal transgression; in part still these are forms created by currently ongoing processes connected with waving. Several kinds of bottom surface with differentiating relief schemes have been specified. Within the inshore an inner and outer system of bars has been distinguished, while within the nearshore it has been noticed that there exist oblique and perpendicular, in regard to the shore, systems of runnels and ridges and a level bottom. On the open sea bottom (on the depth of over 16 m) a level bottom and valleys with specified parts of bottom, slopes and terrace surfaces have been distinguished. Furthermore on the depth of over 20 meters a slope with numerous transverse cuts has been specified. The qualification of the origin and development of the relief forms demands further specialized research which is currently carried out. Nonetheless, the already obtained image of bottom relief indicates an intensified abrasion of the bottom and an excessive, irreversible swipe of the bed load sediments from the shore to the open sea, at a distance up to several kilometers from the shore. It has been confirmed by the results of a big-scale (1:500) analysis of the bottom of test field in Ch_apowo, performed with the use of integrated system of non-invasive and direct methods.


Leonora-_ivilë Gelumbauskaitë, Kristina Gaidelytë
Institute of Geology and Geography (Vilnius, Lithuania)

This paper deals with studies on the depositional-erosional history of the Kur_iø (Curonian) estuary based on the interpretation of echosounding, high resolution seismic profiling, gamma dating and comparison with existed bore-hole-cores stratigraphy. The material was collected in years 1998, 1999 and 2002 during geological-geophysical survey of Kur_iø Marios Lagoon .
The paper presents the map of complete thickness of Holocene (10,300 14 C yr BP-present, Lithuanian coast after Kabailienë and Rimantienë, 1996, Bitinas 2002), the map of the paleorelief of the till loam (phasials of Grûda-Late Weichselian and Medininkai-Warthe), the map of thickness of local Ice Lakes, Baltic Ice Lake and Ancylus Lake sediments (OD- Oldest Dryas-A-Boreal occured between 12,200-8000 cal yr BP), the map of the paleorelief top of the Ancylus transgression - regression phases 8000 cal yr BP, the map of the top paleorelief of the Litorina3 transgression phases (5200-4500 14C yr BP and diatoms) and the map of thickness Post-Litorina sediments (4000-3500-700-850 14C yr BP).
The reconstruction of the Holocene paleogeography on the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon shows the interdependence between Late Glacial surface deformations and Holocene depositional surfaces. According to our investigations a shallow marine and lacustrine deposition has been predominant during the Holocene on the western part of the area only. The morainic obstacle, occupying the central southern part constitutes another paleogeographic conditions in the Boreal - Sub-Atlantic time in this part Lagoon. The depositional complexes in the eastern and northern parts more variable. The facies of fluvial deposition have been recognised and segments of channels at the Ancylus regression stage were distinguished in the northern part of the area. The scheme of the paleorelief Litorina 3 stages showed that Kur_iø Nerija barrier island did not finished its formation during ca.6700-5700.

Bitinas A. et al., 2002- Geological development of the Nemunas River Delta and adjacent areas, West Lithuania. Geol. Quart., 46,4: 375-389.
Kabailienë M., 1996- Geological structure of the Kur_iø Nerija Spit and Kur_iø Marios Lagoon, development during Late Glacial and Holocene. Geological history of the Baltic Sea. Abstracts of the Symposium. Vilnius, 33.


Gösta Hoffmann Ernst-Moritz-Arndt
Universität Greifswald, Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Jahnstr. 17 a, 17487 Greifswald,

The Pudagla coastal lowland is situated in the central part of Usedom Island at the south-western Baltic coast. It covers an area of approximately 16 km2 and is one of the three Holocene lowlands on Usedom.
From a geomorphologic point of view the area can be described as a barrier spit covered by beach ridges and dunes.
The northern and southern margins of the lowland are made up of different Pleistocene sediments. The lowland is bordered on the east by the Baltic Sea. The western margin is defined by the lagoon basin of the so called “Achterwaser”.
63 sediment cores have been taken in order to reconstruct the evolution from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene. A vibrocore-technique was used which allows to take samples at a depth of up to 25 m. Sample material was analysed in terms of grain size, macrofossils (plant remains, molluscs) and microfossils (ostracods, diatoms). Peatlayers were used for radiocarbon-dating.
The oldest sediment described here is a Late Weichselian till which crops out at the southern and northern margins and is situated at a depth of more than 20 m in the central part of the depression. The till is overlain by sandy melt-water deposits.
Preboreal to Boreal fresh-water sands can be observed in almost all cores. The water level of this lake came up to approximately – 8 m msl. The upper parts of this unit show a fossil soil-horizon. This indicates a regression; terrestrial conditions prevailed. Small lakes existed in some depressions only. In early Atlantic time the water level rose again with the lakes getting larger. At about 7,000 BP the Littorina sea reached the area and transgraded into the lakes. This caused a change of the environmental conditions which is well documented in the ostracod and diatom assemblages. With a fast rising water level the depression filled up with organic muds (slack water deposits) first.
From 4,000 BP on the water level rose only slightly and the entire Pudagla lowland became a wind-generated flat with accumulation of fine sands.
At about 1,000 BP beach ridges covered by dunes disconnected the lowland from the open sea. The Achterwasser became brackish and some lakes came into being.
9 evolutionary stages of the Pudagla barrier spit, triggered by global hydrological and climatic changes, can be reconstructed.


Hanebuth TJJ *, Kienast M 1, Pelejero C 2, Steinke S 3
* Faculty of geosciences, dept. of Sedimentology/Paleoceanography, University of Bremen, p.o. box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany, email: 1 UBC, Vancouver/Canada; 2 ANU, Canberra/Australia; 3 NTOU, Keelung/Taiwan.

The deglacial sea-level rise occurred as sich abwechselnden intervals of strong acceleration and deceleration. The precise timing of Meltwater Pulse (MWP) 1a, the interval of most rapid sea-level rise, is still controversially debated since the interpretation is based on records of different quality. Nevertheless, to reconstruct the precise timing of this pulse is essential for understanding the interactions of the complex global climate system. We have used an independent method based on the deglacial inundation of shelves here to determine the timing of MWP 1a.
A twofold decrease in long-chain n-alcane (n-nonacosane) concentrations in a downcore record from the northern South China Sea (site 17940) indicates a rapid drop in the supply of terrigenous organic matter to the open South China Sea during the last deglaciation. We speculate that the sudden drop in terrigenous organic matter delivery to this marginal basin is interpreted to reflect a short-term response of local rivers on the formerly exposed part of the shelf to rapid sea-level rise.
Two high resolution alkenone (UK37) sea-surface temperature (SST) records from the southern South China Sea (sites 18252-3 and 18287-2) display an abrupt warming of >1 °C at the end of the last glacial period. According to AMS radiocarbon dates, the midpoint of this warming step occurred at 14.57 cal. ka, suggesting synchroneity (within the recognized uncertainties of absolute chronologies) of the Bølling warming in the SCS and Greenland (GISP2 ice core record).
The rapid SST increase during the Bølling warming in the northern SCS (site 17940-2) is paralleled by the similarly abrupt decrease in the input of terrigenous organic matter to this site. This correspondence, in turn, would imply a synchroneity of the Bølling warming and MWP 1a (at or shortly after 14.7 cal. ka). This phase relation contrasts with the frequently cited onset of MWP 1a ca. 14 cal. ka but supports remarkably the timing as derived from sediment cores on the Sunda Shelf. This finding further implies that previous studies postulating a weakening of deep-water formation in the North Atlantic due to massive meltwater discharge during MWP 1a need to be reevaluated.

Clark PU, Mitrovica JX, Milne GA, Tamisiea ME, 2002. Sea-Level Fingerprinting as a Direct Test for the Source of Global Meltwater Pulse IA. Science 295: 2438-2441. Hanebuth T, Stattegger K, Grootes PM, 2000. Rapid flooding of the Sunda Shelf - a late-glacial sea-level record. Science 288: 1033-1035. Kienast M, Hanebuth TJJ, Pelejero C, Steinke S, 2003. Synchroneity of meltwater pulse 1a and the Bølling warming: New evidence from the South China Sea. Geology 31 (1): 67-70.


Jan Harff1, Wolfram Lemke1, Reinhard Lampe2, Friedrich Lüth3, Harald Lübke3, Michael Meyer1, Franz Tauber1
1Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Seestr. 15, D.-18119 Rostock, Germany 2Geographical Institute, University of Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 16, D-17487 Greifswald Germany 3State Agency of Archaeological Heritage Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schloss Wiligrad, D-19069 Lübstorf, Germany

A Research Unit SINCOS sponsored by the German Science Foundation has been established in September 2002. The general target of SINCOS is a model of the relation between geo-system, eco-system, climate and socio-economic system for sinking coasts of tide less seas to be developed as an example for the southern Baltic Sea since the Atlantikum. Geoscientists (geologists, geomorphologists, geodesists), biologists (palaeobotanists, palaeozoologists), climate researchers and archaeologists collaborate in order to investigate the cause and effect relation between driving forces (climatic and geological processes) and the response of the natural and social environment in the coastal areas of a transgressive sea. The central role plays the reconstruction of the Litorina transgression west and east of the Darss Sill structure. Seven projects under the roof of SINCOS will deal with the acquisition and interpretation of proxy-data in order to reconstruct the history of the south-western Baltic Sea since 8.000 y BP. New data describing the relative sea level change for western Mecklenburg were provided by sampling a paleo-coastal area at the Jäckelberg north of the Poel Island. Artefacts sampled off the Island Poel by scuba divers proved Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements in coastal waters of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Based on these data the paleo-geographic development of the coastal areas have been reconstructed using the backstripping method of basin modelling together with a special interpolation method for the reconstruction of the palaeo-relief.
Paleo-geographic reconstructions help to understand the role of the different driving forces: climatically controlled eustatic change and geologically determined isostatic movement. Predictions of both processes are needed separately for future scenarios.


Jensen, J.B, 1, Lemke, W..2, Bennike, O.1, Witkowski, A.3, Kuijpers, A.1
1 Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark, 2 Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany, 3 Szczecin University, Institute of Marine Sciences, Felczaka 3a, 71-412 Szczcecin, Poland

Marine geological investigations in the westernmost Baltic Sea, has been carried out in the BALKAT project in a co-operation between Danish (GEUS), German (Baltic Sea Research Institute, IOW) and Polish (Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Szczecin) partners since the late eighties early nineties.
The purpose has been to investigate the Late Glacial and Holocene development of the passages between the western part of the BALtic and the southern part of the KATtegat. The investigations aim at reconstructing the various sedimentary environments, the palaeogeography revealing the former distribution of land and sea, and the possible impact of climate change on the environment and cultural history of the (western) Baltic Sea region.
In order to obtain this information, a variety of studies and analyses has been performed all based on the initial acquisition of shallow seismic data and subsequent collection of sediment cores. The seismic data together with the sedimentological descriptions of the cores have been interpreted according to the depositional sequence stratigraphical approach for reconstruction of the sedimentary environment. In addition, sediment samples have been selected for biostratigraphic analyses using molluscs, plant remains and seeds, pollen, diatoms, and in some cases (Kattegat) foraminifers. Well-preserved plant remains are preferably used for obtaining high-quality AMS C-14 dating results. The combined interpretation of these ‘multi-proxy’ data enabled a detailed description of the processes involved in sea level change and coastline migration, general palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental changes, faunal and floral history, climatic conditions, and neotectonic activity.
In the presentation depositional sequencestratigraphical examples will be the basis for a series of updated palaeogeographical time slices that show the general deglaciation and early postglacial history of the southwestern Kattegat and the western Baltic.

Selected BALKAT papers:
Jensen, J.B., Bennike, O., Witkowski, A.,Lemke,W., Kuijpers,A. (1997): The Baltic Ice Lake in the south-western Baltic: Mecklenburg Bay - Arkona Basin.- Boreas, 26, 217-236.
Bennike,O. and Jensen, J.B. (1998): Late- and postglacial shore level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea. Denmark. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark,Vol. 45, 27-38.
Jensen, J.B., Bennike, O., Witkowski, A., Lemke,W., Kuijpers,A. (1999): Early Holocene history of the southwestern Baltic Sea: the Ancylus Lake stage.- Boreas 28, 437-453.
Bennike, O., Jensen, J.B., Konradi, P., Lemke,W., Heinemeier, J. (2000): Early Holocene drowned lagoonal deposits from the Kattegat, southern Scandinavia.- Boreas, 29, 272-286.
Lemke, W., Jensen, J.B., Bennike, O., Endler, R., Witkowski, A., Kuijpers, A. (2001): Hydrographic thresholds in the western Baltic Sea: Late Quaternary geology and the Dana River concept.- Marine Geology, 176, 191-201.
Jensen, J.B., Strand, K., Konradi, P., Kuijpers, A., Bennike,O.,Lemke,W. and Endler, R.(2002): Neotectonics, sea- level changes and biological evolution in the Fennoscandian Border Zone of the Kattegat Sea. Boreas, 31, 133-150.


Meilute Kabailiene
Department of Geology and mineralogy, M.K.Ciurlionio 21, LT 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania; e-mail:

In the paper are summarizes data on diatom and pollen stratigraphy from some tens of sites on the coastal area of Lithuania and Kaliningrad Region including the Spit of Kurshiu Nerija and Lagoon of Kurshiu Marios.
The water level during the Baltic Ice Lake stage was high, planktonic freshwater diatoms dominate. In the northern part of Lithuanian coast on the heigh of 12-16 m NN the remains of the BIL shoreline are found (Bitinas, Damusyte, 1995). On the territory of the Kurshiu Nerija Spit and Kurshiu marios Lagoon the deposits of BIL could be distinguished on the basis of diatom and pollen data in all the clay sections studied. From the sites on the northern half of Kurshiu Nerija Spit we got data, confirmed that the water level in Yoldia Sea was lower than 35 m NN.
The water level of the Lake Ancylus transgression in the area studied was lower than 8-9 m NN. During the second half of Boreal Lake Ancylus retreated, water level dropped by some metres down.
The first transgression of the Litorina Sea (approximately 8000-7800 BP) left a thin layer of sandy deposits with brackish and marine diatoms characteristic to the Litorina Sea. Water level during this transgression was lower than -6 m, with a greatly winding shoreline. The low level of water (about 10 m below the present one) occured during the second half of Early Atlantic, shore overgrew with dense vegetation, deposited sediments are rich in plant remains, thin peat layers are formed (Kabailiene, 1967, 1997, 1999).
The second transgression of the Litorina Sea was maximum and covered the southeastern coast during 6700-5700 BP. The water level was some meters higher than present one.
The Litorina Sea retreating from the area of its maximum spreading left a terrace. During regresion the Spit of Kurshiu Nerija started to be formed and semiclosed lagoons were formed along the shoreline, settlements were established on the shore of the lagoon in northern part of Lithuanian coast in the outskirts of Shventoji. The earliest date related to archaeological finds are of the latest Early Neolithic (5700 BP). Archaeological studies of these settlements have been carried out by R.Rimantiene (1992; Kabailiene, Rimantiene, 1995). Artefacts attributed to the Narva and Pamariu (Bay Coast) Neolithic cultures have been identified and singled out.
At 5200-4500 BP occured short-lasting third transgression of the Litorina Sea. This transgression was confirmed not only by diatoms data but also by archaeological excavations – there are data showing a move of archaeological findings towards the lagoon. At 4000-3500 BP there was a small Postlitorina transgression.

BITINAS A., DAMUSYTE A., 1995 - Geological and geomorphological conditions in the Lithuanian coastal zone. In: Natural environment, man and cultural history on the coastal areas of Lithuania. Excursion guidebook. Vilnius: 5-9. Kabailiene M., 1967 - The development of the Kurshiu Nerija Spit and the Kurshiu Marios Lagoon. In: Geology and Palaeogeography of the Quaternary in the Lithuania. Transactions of Inst. Geology, 5: 181-207 (in Russian).
KABAILIENE M., 1997 - Kurshiu Nerija Spit and Kurshiu Marios Lagoon: geological structure, origin and development during Late Glacial and Holocene In: Fifth Marine Geological conference “The Baltic”. Inst. of Geology, Vilnius. 134-140.
KABAILIENE M., 1999 - Water level changes in SE Baltic based on diatom stratigraphy of Late Glacial and Holocene deposits. Geologija, 29, Vilnius: 15-29.
KABAILIENE M., RIMANTIENE R., 1995 - Holocene changes in the palaeoecological conditions of the Lithuanian coast around the Shventoji settlement In: Landscapes and Life, PACT, 50: 185-196.
RIMANTIENE R., 1992 - Neolothic Hunter – Gathering at Shventoji in Lithuania, Antiquity 66 (251): 367-376.


Hilkka Kallio1 and Hanna Virkki2
Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, Espoo, FIN-02151, Finland 1email: 2email:

This project is financed by Baltic Sea Region Interreg III b programme and it is focusing on socio-economic and environmental assessment of the effects of climate change on sea level rise and river runoff in the Baltic Sea region (BSR). Both of these phenomenon can lead to major flooding events having severe impacts on the spatial development of cities and regions as well as sustainable development of the entire BSR. The Seareg project partners with financial contribution are Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (CURS/YTK), Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Survey (SMHI), Universität Greifswald, City Government of Pärnu and Regional Council Itä-Uusimaa.
One main task in Seareg project is to assess the major impact zones caused by sea level rise in the Baltic Sea region by using GIS-based methods. Ocean model and land uplift rate are factors that must be taken into account in addressing flood prone areas. This project has produced grid based cartographic presentations showing estimates of sea level changes 100 years after present. Together with a high resolution regional ocean model, digital elevation model and land use and soil data the effects and spatial extent of sea level change can be evaluated. The ocean modeling will be accomplished by using two emission scenarios (A2 and B2) by IPCC.
The results of the project will be summarized in a decision support system for impact assessment. This decision support system will be addressed to both local and regional planning authorities in the case study areas and in the BSR cooperation on spatial planning in general.

Figure 1. Sea level rise after 100 years, depth below the mean sea level (cm). The overview map is based upon scenario data of the Rossby Centre model system (RCAO-H A2) and land uplift data.


Reinhard Lampe, Wolfgang Janke
Institute of Geography F.-L.-Jahn-Str. 16 D-17487 Greifswald GERMANY (

Mires are archives of landscape development, because vegetation remnants are preserved in an anoxic environment for a long time and hardly removed or changed after sedimentation. Therefore highly resolved and selective stratigraphies can be obtained from peat profiles. Moreover, coastal peatlands depend in respect to their vertical growth totally on the sea level, are witnesses of its variations and, furthermore, preserve remnants of organisms which permit conclusions about the nutrient content and salinity of the flood water and thus of the surrounding sea.
Such coastal peatlands are located widely on the inner lagoon-like coastal waters of the West Pomeranian coast, where the hydrodynamical stress is low enough that peat building vegetation can grow. All coastal mires, which have a sufficient thickness possess a reed/sedge peat base built predominantly by Phragmites australis resp. Bolboschoenus maritimus. Their evolution has been induced by the rising sea and started in the middle Atlantic to the Subboreal depending on the elevation of the mineral subground. The dependence of the Phragmites peat surface on the vicinal sea level is quite marked and is restricted to an interval of about +20 to –20 cm around the mean sea level (msl; Krisch, 1978; Slobodda, 1992). Therefore, coastal peatland surfaces, if not eroded or otherwise disturbed, are useful sea-level indicators.
Typically, in the upper section the peat profiles investigated change into black pitchy muds, poorer in organic carbon (black layers), and finally into grass peats rich in mineral matter. The starting point of this alteration is a failure of the Phragmites reeds at about the closure of the pollen zone Xa due to a sea level fall (Jeschke and Lange, 1992). The dried coastal areas were then used by Slavonic and German settlers as cattle pasture without much effort. Connected with the continuation of the sea level rise during the pollen zone Xb, the development of the grass peat started. The strongly competing reed was repressed due to the grazing cattle, whereas halophilic grasses and herbs were encouraged. Resulting from 800 years of interplay between flooding with material supply from the lagoons, accumulation of organic matter (predominantly of grass roots) and densification due to the trampling cattle with prevention of oxygenation and mineralisation, the coastal peatlands have the potential to grow to a higher elevation above sea level than any other peats (Jeschke and Lange, 1992; Kliewe and Janke 1982; Lange et al., 1983). Typical levels are between 20 to 50 cm above msl.
The black pitchy layers developed due to peat oxidation caused by a groundwater or sea level fall. Such a fall could have been triggered by eustatic sea level variations, by climate changes to warmer and drier vegetation periods with intensified evapotranspiration and, in the past some hundred years, by anthropogenic drainage measures. Apart from their more or less intensive colour, the black layers can be identified macroscopically by their amorphous-smeary structure and the lack of synchronously built plant remains. The latter have been more or less totally mineralised, but younger roots from the layers above may have penetrated into the deposit and been preserved.
At the margin to the layer above, a hiatus is usually found and can be proved only by means of pollen analysis or absolute dating. An important palynological criterion is the high pollen and spore density as a result of their relative enrichment during the degradation of the organic peat substance. Nonetheless, the ignition loss of the black layers amounts to about 40-65%, demonstrating that a strong peat accumulation must have preceded the subsequent degradation. In the upper section of the black layer a zone exists where pinnularia diatoms are enriched. They point to an increase in subaerial conditions and a decreasing salinity during the turning period between the transgression and the following regression. Sedimentologically/ geochemically the black layers are characterized by a higher density, by high degrees of humification and partly by enrichments of pedogenic iron.
Around thirty radiocarbon data available from the peat profiles investigated and from tree trunks found in situ in their vicinity as well as data from pollen and diatom analyses provide the base to reconstruct the sea-level history. The sea-level curve which can be determined from the depth-time diagram reveals that throughout the past 5,000 to 6,000 years the mean water table moved only in the range of some decimetre (Janke and Lampe 2000). The placement of particular transgression/regression stages could be determined with a higher accuracy than before and demonstrate a strong correlation to climate oscillations such as to the Late Bronze Age dry period or the Little Ice Age climate deterioration. Uncertainties still remain in regard to the regression magnitudes and to the length of the hiatuses in the peat sequences. Due to the different response of the mires concerning the releasing sea-level fall the hiatus lengths determined will probably be of only local validity.

Jeschke, L.; Lange, E. (1992): Zur Genese der Küstenüberflutungsmoore im Bereich der vorpommerschen Boddenküste. - In: Billwitz, K.; Jäger, K.-D.; Janke, W. (eds.): Jungquartäre Landschaftsräume - aktuelle Forschungen zwischen Atlantik und Tienschan: 208 - 215. Berlin, Springer
Kliewe, H.; Janke, W. (1982): Der holozäne Wasserspiegelanstieg der Ostsee im nordöstlichen Küstengebiet der DDR. - Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 126: 65 - 74.
Lange, E.; Jeschke., L.; Knapp, H. D. (1986): Ralswiek und Rügen. Landschaftsentwicklung und Siedlungsgeschichte der Ostseeinsel. Teil 1. Die Landschaftsgeschichte der Insel Rügen seit dem Spätglazial. - Schriften zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte 38: 175 pp.
Krisch, H. (1978): Die Abhängigkeit der Phragmites-Röhrichte am Greifswalder Bodden von edaphischen Faktoren und von der Exponiertheit des Standortes. - Archiv Naturschutz u. Landschaftsforsch. 18: 121 - 140.
Slobodda, S. (1992): Grundzüge der Kennzeichnung und landschaftsökologischen Typisierung von Boddenufern mit Verlandungssäumen. - In: Billwitz, K.; Jäger, K.-D.; Janke, W. (eds.): Jungquartäre Landschaftsräume - aktuelle Forschungen zwischen Atlantik und Tienschan: 200 - 207. Berlin, Springer.
Janke, W.; Lampe, R. (2000): Zu Veränderungen des Meeresspiegels an der vorpommerschen Küste in den letzten 8000 Jahren. - Zeitschrift f. geologische Wissenschaften 28: 585 - 600.


Ma_Gorzata LatalOwa, Joanna Œwiêta, Anna Pêdziszewska
Laboratory of Palaeoecology and Archaeobotany, Department of Plant Ecology, University of Gdañsk, Poland E-Mail: Bioml@Univ.Gda.Pl

The palynological and plant macrofossil analyses of the sediments of Szczecin Lagoon and Gardno Bar are a part of two large interdisciplinary projects lead by R.K. Borówka from the Szczecin University and K. Rotnicki from the Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznañ. The projects are devoted to the problem of the Holocene hydrological changes in the area of the Southern Baltic (Borówka et al. 2002, Rotnicki 1999, Rotnicki et al. 2001). Therefore, the main aim of the palaeobotanical investigation within the framework of these projects is to refine the information on the environmental changes due to the hydrological processes that took place in the Southern Baltic coast and to supplement the data on chronology of the hydrological events by palynological dating. In the present study we would like to concentrate on the role of selected palaeoecological indicators used in the environmental reconstruction.
The interdisciplinary groups working in both areas involve different specialists for particular taxonomic groups e.g. diatoms, malluscs and ostracods. Their analyses supplement each other giving an important picture of the ecological changes. Also, the botanical samples prepared for pollen analysis and for analysis of macroscopic remains contain dozens of types of plant and also of animal remains. Among them some of a high indicator value.

Szczecin Lagoon
Before the transgression of the Baltic Sea waters, the area of Szczecin Lagoon was covered by mesotrophic mires with Menyanthes trifolita and Comarum palustre, rushes with Thelypteris palustris, Cladium mariscus and Schoenoplectus lacustris and shallow water bodies with such species as Najas marina, N. minor and Nymphaea alba. In these shallow ponds the Cyanobacteria blooms occurred during warm summers as shown by the abundance of Gleotrichia remains in the sediments. The short-life ingressions of sea waters preceded the main transgression as indicated by the appearances of microscopic Foraminifera and Dinophyceae. In the late Atlantic period sea waters covered the area of the today’s Szczecin Lagoon. Among plant indicators Ruppia maritima indicates saline waters. Presence of Foraminifera and Dinophyceae (mainly Operculodinium cf. centrocarpum) in pollen slides supplements the information on marine conditions described mainly on the basis of the mollusc data (Borówka et al. 2002). The later development of lagoonary environment is well documented by presence of numerous taxa of algae, mainly Chlorophyceae. The most abundant are Pediastrum alterans and P. kawraiskyi. According to Komarek and Jankovska (2000) both species are characteristic for large lakes with rather clear mesotrophic/oligotrophic water. In the topmost part of sediments the high proportions of Scenedesmus and Tetraedron minimum indicate increasing eutrophication.

Gardno Bar
The preliminary results of palynological and macrofossil analysis of sediments buried by dunes in the Gardno Bar indicate that in the marine series composition of the indicator taxa is similar to that identified in Szczecin Lagoon. The most frequent are cysts of Operculodinium cf. centrocarpum and the same type of Foraminifera as described from Szczecin Lagoon (Type 700 acc. to van Geel et al 1983). The halophilous Zannichellia palustris was frequent among macrophytes. Also in this site with the following decrease in salinity the rich green algae flora developed with Pediastrum kawraiskyi and P. alterans as dominant species. The uppermost organic series indicate succession of a telmatic mesotrophic plant community with Menyanthes trifoliata and rushes with Carex pseudocyperus, C. diandra and Schoenoplectus lacustris as the most common.


BorÓWka R.K., LatalOwa M., Osadczuk A., ŒwiÊTa J., Witkowski A. 2002. Palaeogeography and Palaeoecology of Szczecin Lagoon. Geifswalder Geographische Arbeiten 27, C4: 107-113.
Geel B. Van, Bohnke S.J.P., Dee H. 1983. Archaeological and Palaeoecological Aspects of a Medieval House Terp In a Reclaimed Raised Bog Area in North Holland. Br. Rijksad. Oudeheidk.Bodemonderz., 33: 419-444.
Komarek J., Jankovska V. 2000. Review of Green Algal Genus Pediastrum; Implication for Pollen-Analytical Research. Bibliotheca Phycologica 30.
Rotnicki K. 1999. WzglÊDne Zmiany Poziomu Ba_Tyku Po_Udniowego Na Polskim Wybrze&Iquest;U Œrodkowym W Holocenie W Œwietle BadaÑ Niziny GardnieÑSko-&Pound;Ebskiej. In: K. Rotnicki (Ed.). Przemiany Œrodowiska Geograficznego Nizin Nadmorskich Po_Udniowego Ba_Tyku W Vistulianie I Holocenie, 63-80. Bogucki Wyd. Naukowe, PoznaÑ. Rotnicki K., BorÓWka R.K., Pazdur A., Ha_As S., KrzymiÑSka J., Witkowski A. 1999.


G. Lericolais1, I. Popescu2; N. Panin2, W. Ryan3, F. Guichard4
1- IFREMER, Centre de BREST, BP 70, F29200 Plouzané cedex, FRANCE 2- GEOECOMAR, 23-25 Dimitrie Onciul Str , BP 34-51, Bucuresti, ROMANIA 3- Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY 10964, USA 4- LSCE, CNRS-CEA, Avenue de la Terrasse, BP 1, 91198- Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, FRANCE

From previous studies of seabed mapping and of subsurface sampling realised in the Black Sea by Soviet scientists and various international expeditions, it has been deduced that the Black Sea was predominantly a freshwater lake interrupted by possible marine invasions coincident with high sea level during theQuaternary. Shelf-wide unconformities attest to repeated episodes that lowered the lake and brought ancient shorelines to the shelf edge. On two occasions during post-glacial time the lake's coast lay well below its outlet. Like the Caspian Sea, Black Sea regressions occurred in warm periods and transgressions in cold periods.
From recent surveys carried out on the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea it comes that the Black Sea's lake level rised on the shelf to at least the isobath –40 to -30 m given by the landward limit of extend of the Dreissena layer characteristic of freshwater conditions. This rise in freshwater level could coincide with the answer of the Black Sea as an important catchment basin of the melt water drained from the melting of the ice cap ensuing the Melt Water Pulse 1, from the Bølling-Allerød period. It is possible that at that time the lake level filled by freshwater rose to the level of its outlet and spilled into the Mediterranean. However, in mid-Holocene at 7.5 ky BP the onset of salt water conditions are clearly evidenced in the Black Sea. From these observation Ryan and Pitman (1997) came to the conclusion that the Black Sea could have been filled by saltwater cascading from the Mediterranean.
Even if this hypothesis have been discussed (Aksu et al., 1999, 2002) the recent discoveries of the excellent preservation of drowned beaches, sand dunes and soils seem to bring arguments to the Ryan and Pitman assumption.
The hypothesis of an abrupt flooding of the Black Sea in the Holocene arose from the results of a Russian-American expedition in 1993 that surveyed the continental shelf south of the Kerch Strait and west of the Crimea (Major, 1994; Ryan et al 1997). The multibeam echosounding and the reflection profiles acquired during Franch-Romanian surveys carried out on the northwestern continental shelf revealed wave-cut terraces at an average water depth of –100 m. The cores recovered on this area present an erosion surface evidencing subaerial exposure well below the level of the modern Bosphorus outlet. The 14C ages documented a simultaneous sub-aqueous colonisation of the terrestrial surface by marine mollusks at 7.1 ky BP. Evidence of sea water penetration is marked at the Bosphorus outlet as the recent canyon heads mapped during last cruise seemed to reveal.


Lemke, W. 1, Jensen, J.B.2, Bennike, O.2, Witkowski, A.3, Harff, J.1, Endler, R.1, Kuijpers, A.2, Lübke, H.4
1 Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany, 2 Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark, 3 Szczecin University, Institute of Marine Sciences, Felczaka 3a, 71-412 Szczcecin, Poland 4 State Archaeological Museum and State Agency of Archaeology Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schloß Wiligrad, D-19061 Lübstorf, Germany

One of the most dramatic environmental changes in the post-glacial history of the Baltic Sea as a whole was the transformation from fresh-water into a brackish-marine basin during the Littorina transgression. For the entire Baltic basin, such conditions had not prevailed since the disappearance of marine influences at the end of the last (Eemian) interglacial, more than 100,000 years ago. Mainly due to the post-glacial large eustatic sea level rise the Danish Straits were inundated and marine waters could enter the Baltic Basin. This process changed the complete hydrographic system as well as the coastal configuration throughout the entire Baltic region. The general picture of this development is well known, but many details remain contradictory with a number of essential questions unsolved. This is true not only for the accurate dating of the Littorina transgression, but also for the chronological order in which the thresholds in the Belts and the Øresound were flooded. New data from the south-western Baltic Sea give rise to the assumption that full brackish conditions have been established in this area later than previously thought. Contrary to these results, Berglund et al. (2001) have shown marine conditions to occur in Blekinge (SE_Sweden) considerably earlier than in the south-western Baltic. Excluding dating inconsistencies, this challenges the usual scenario of the Belts being the main transgression pathway.
The latter question is especially crucial for investigations dealing with the late Mesolithic and early Neolithic environment and settlement history of the southern coasts of the Baltic Sea. On the other hand, results from archaeological studies provide new insights into the process of rapid inundation along the southern coasts of the Littorina Sea.
The starting conditions for the Littorina transgression, i.e. the palaeogeography of the south-western Ancylus Lake, are not very well understood as well. Before the Littorina transgression, the south-western Baltic region is traditionally believed to have provided the main drainage pathway of the Ancylus Lake via the Kadet Channel, Fehmarn Belt and Great Belt (Dana River). In the result of extended seismic, sedimentological, geochronological and palaeontological investigations no proof for this assumption was found. On the contrary, indications of an Ancylus Lake level deeper than the contemporary Darss Sill point to the existence of another drainage pathway east of it. Whether this could have been the Øresound is one of the questions remaining to be solved. However, this would imply later uplift of the Drodgen Sill area considerably deviating from the regional isostatic pattern.
 A new project funded by the German Research Council (DFG) within the Research Unit SINCOS ( is aiming at the reconstruction of the transgression process east and west of the Darss Sill in close co-operation with scientists from Germany, Denmark, Poland and Sweden.

Berglund, B.E., Sandgren, P., Yu, S., Barnekow, L., Hannon, G., Jiang, H., Skog, G., (2001), The Ancylus Lake and the Littorina Sea in Blekinge, South Sweden. In: U. Brenner (Editor), Baltic Sea Science Congress. Stockholm Marine Research Centre, Stockholm, p. 83.


Danuta J. MichczyDska1, Anna Pazdur1, Karol Rotnicki2
1 GADAM Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 2, PL-44-100 Gliwice 2 Institute of Quaternary Research and Geoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, PL-60-701 Pozna_

The differences between radiocarbon and calendar time scale can be source of misleading impressions of synchrony of some events, incorrect estimation of rates of sedimentation or duration of episodes if radiocarbon ages are not calibrated. The correct interpretation of palaeoenvironmental records demands using calibrated ages. It is especially significant when comparisons between records with different chronologies (ex. radiocarbon and varve) are made (Bartlein et al., 1995). Simple simulation shows that an event with uniform probability distribution at some periods of calendar time scale has not got uniform distribution at radiocarbon time scale.
Since the seventies an analysis of the frequency distribution of 14C-dated samples in a time scale has been carried out for several selected geographic regions (ex. Geyh, Streif, 1970; Go_dzik, Pazdur, 1987, Michczy_ska et. al, 1996). The radiocarbon dating method, which was primary used simply to determine age of sediment containing dated samples, becomes an important source of information on the course of some geologic processes in the past. An interpretation of the frequency distributions is based on two basic assumptions:
1. The number of 14C dated samples is proportional to the amount of organic matter deposited in sediments in particular time periods
2. Total amount of organic matter in sediments depends on palaeogeographical conditions.
For statistical analysis dates of peat from Poland were selected. All dates came from Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory. Peat is a typical organic material, often dated using 14C method. Received radiocarbon ages are reliable and do not require correction because of “hard water effect” or isotopic fractionation (Pazdur, 1982). These facts decided this type of deposit was chosen for analysis. Detailed analysis of frequency distributions, constructed for 14C-dated samples of peat from the territory of Poland, show, that the preferential sampling plays important part.

Bartlein P.J., Edwards M.E., Shafer S.L., Barker E.D., 1995. Calibration of radiocarbon ages and the interpretation of paleoenvironmental records, Quaternary Research vol. 44: 417-424.
Geyh M.A., Streif H., 1970. Studies on coastal movements and sea-level changes by means of the statistical evaluation of 14C-data. Procedings of the “Symposium on coastal geodesy” held in Munich on July 20 to July 24, 1970: 599-611.
Go_dzik J., Pazdur M.F., 1987, Frequency distribution of 14C dates from Poland in the time interval 12-45 kyr BP and its palaeogeographical implications.
Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki _l_skiej, s. Matematyka-Fizyka, 56, Geochronometria Nr 4: 27-42.
Michczy_ska D.J., Michczy_ski A., Goslar T., Pazdur A., Pazdur M.F., 1996, Statystyczna analiza danych radiow_glowych w badaniach zmian _rodowiska naturalnego w przesz_o_ci. Wst_pne wyniki. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki _l_skiej, s. Matematyka-Fizyka, 79, Geochronometria Nr 13: 193-201.
Pazdur M.F., 1982. Badanie dok_adno_ci datowania metod_ C pó_noplejstoce_skich i holoce_skich osadów organogenicznych. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki _l_skiej. Seria Matematyka-Fizyka z. 41: 1-81.


Józef Edward Mojski
Gda_sk University, Instiute of Oceanography Departament of Marine Geology 46 Marsza_ka Pi_sudskiego 81-378 Gdynia, Poland

The baltic is a typical innercontinental sea. It covers a nw part of solid precambrian east – european platform. The platform is cutting at sw by teisseyre – tornquist zone. Further in sw direction the baltic covers of caledonian massiv. The whole teritory is coverd by younger sedimentary deposits up to tertiary including. In the baltic proper the most solid rocks of lower paleozoic built the glints.
In Tertiary the fennoscandian area was inclined in the southern direction to marine and limnic reservoirs. On the such surface the tick weathered cover originated. It was redeposited partly as pozna_ clay formation in closed basin of erly pliocene age. The youngest part of pozna_ clays sequence was divided into two parts: eastern (warsaw) and western (liwer silesia) ones. Long axix of both reservoirs was located semiparallel of latitude. Du-ring the quaternary the axis of upper neogene depression has been shifted to north. This process took place during both holsteinian and eemian seas. The holsteinian basin spreaded from the west to the east parallel of latitude. In the east it was connected with the arctic sea across ladoga lake, onega lake and white sea are-as. The whole fennoscandia area was a big island. The holsteinian sea formed the bays along southern coast. They reached the area we west of berlin, south of gda_sk in lowermost part of pregola and niemen rivers valleys.
The successive marine transgression started at beginning of eemian. It reached a little smaller area in comparison with hol-steinian sea. During maximum of the eemian sea both, the scandina-vian and kola peninsula were islands. In the south some marine bays are well recognized, e.g. Sztum sea in noerthern poland, as well as mga sea along the mga river and wolchow river up to ilmen lake in nw russia.
The palaeogeography during the first substages of vistulian is weakly investigated. Probably small closed reservoirs existed on-ly. The existence of short-lives but numerous seas is rather im-possible at that time.
The youngest marine transgression in the baltic depression started during the decline of vistulian. The scandinavian ice-sheet decayed at first in the odra (oder) bank (about 14 ka bp). Later, up to 8 ka bp the development of present-day baltic sea dependet, on vertical crustal movement of scandinavian area as well as on inflow of saline, oceanic waters from west (atlantic ocean) and from north-east (arctic sea).
The palaeogeography of the baltic area in that time is well-known due a lot of very well investigated marine and limnic seque-nces, as well as of dated relief of glacial topography on inland. Due to glacioisostatic uplift the mid- and young-holocene shore-lines along the bothnian sea now up to 200 m a.s.l. At the southern coasts of the baltic sea the former shore-lines are sub-merged.
The present-day baltic originated during the litorina trans-gression (= atlantic or flandrian). In the south the maximum de-veloppment, of the litorina sea took place about 6 ka bp. Later the stabilisation of shore-lines prevailed. In the last 200-100 years only the abrasion of coastal zone increased in some parts of cliff up to 1 m pro year. Such trend is connected with the increasing green-house effect most probably. During the nearest 100 years the average rate of marine erosion may be forecasted about 0.4 m pro year (min. 0.22, max. 1.0 m).

Selected bibliogra.phy

Eronen m. 1988 - a scrutiny of the late quaternary history of the baltic sea. Geological survey of finland. Special paper 6: 11-18.
Geological atlas of the southern baltic (ed. J. E. Mojski). State geological institute. Sopot - warszawa. 1995.
Makowska a. 1986 - pleistocene seas in poland; sediments, age and palaeogeography. Prace instytutu geologicznego 120. War-szawa: 74 pp.
Mojski j. E. 1995 - an outline of the evolution of the southern baltic area at the end of the last glaciation and beginning of the holocene. Biuletyn peryglacjalny 34: 167-176.
Mojsk j. E. 1997 - polygenesis of the southern baltic floor relief. Landform analysis 1: 51-54.
Rotnicki k., Borówka r. K., Devin n. 1995 - accelerated sea level rise as a threat to the polish coastal zone – quantification of risk. Journal of coastal research. Special issue 22: 111-140
Tomczak a. 1995 - geological structure and holocene evolution of the polish coastal zone. Journal of coastal resaarch. Special issue 22. 15-32. U_cinowicz sz. 1996 - deglaciation of the southern baltic area (summ.). Biuletyn pa_stwowego instytutu geologicznego 373: 179-193.
Zawadzka-kahlau e. 1999 - trends in south baltic coastal development during the last hundred years.  


Dr. Regina Mork˚naitÎ, dr. Zigmas Janukonis
Institute of Geology and geography, –evËenkos 13, Vilnius, Lithuania e-mail:

Different morphogenetical belts are situated in the crossñsection of Curonian spit. The structure of the most interesting belts ñ the belt of deflation belt and the belt of dune ridge ñ are determined by both nature and antropogenical factors.
A shallow depression ñ water situated in some areas ñ is situated behind the beach foredune ridge (4-8 m in height). It is followed by a 0.1 - 0.9 km wide deflation plain ìpalveî rising 2-5 m above the sea level. This plain is composed of eolian sand and hummocky, especially in the juncture with the eastern spit ridge.
The total thickness of marine sediments in the deflation plain is 23-28.5 m. The complex of Post-Litorina marine and eolian formations is composed of variable grain-size sands with gravel and, more infrequently, shingle. The sand layer is predominated by fine-grained sand.
The Litorina Sea sediment horizon is represented by a 1 m thick sapropelite layer. The sapropelite sole is lying at an absolute altitude of 10.5-11.5 m. The interface of Litorina sediments and sediments of Ancylus Lake are bedding at an absolute altitude of 11.5-13.0 m. The organic sediments (sapropelite) presumably have developed on the sediments left by the first stage of Litorina Sea. The process must have started when the territory was waterlogged. Later on thick covers of Litorina and Post-Litorina sediments have been compressed.
The organic sediments of sapropelite are overlaying a complex of fine-grained and variable grain-size sands (predominated by fine-and medium-grained sands). This complex on conditions may be attributed to Litorina Sea and Ancylus Lake sediments. The complex of Ancylus Lake sediments is bedding at a depth of 14-30 m (a.a. - 12.5-28.5 m).
The marine sediments are overlying the late glaciation sediments (clays and clayey silts) where layer is 2-10 m in thickness. The roof of the late glaciation sediments is bedding at a.a. - 23.0-28,5 m.
Obliteration of Curonian spit forests, at the end of the 17 th century - middle of the 19th century, the processes of deflation intensified. The blown sand mass began to move from the sea eastward burying the old parabolic dunes under a thick sand layer. The ridge of the main dunes, which can be seen today, had developed by the middle of the 19th century. An artificial beach foredune ridge, formed at the end of the 19th century, and afforestation of dunes stabilized the deflation processes.
In the last few years there appeared many works dealing with the foredune ridge dynamics, differentiation of its sands, wind changes and phases of vegetation in Curonian spit. Somewhat less attention is paid to the changes of the diversity of forms of the main ridge which are entailed by geomorphological processes and anthropogenic loads. An attempt to fill this gap was made in 1998-1999 when during field works in the dune sector Curonian lagoon-JuodkrantÎ-Pervalka the impressive negative forms of eolian relief were mapped - generally refered to as deflation basins ñ and excavations for granulometric analysis were made. By means of visual survey and measurement about 50 such basins were distinguished and the character and distribution of erosional-accumulative forms (ramparts, edges, ìcorrasional remnantsî, eroded slopes, ripple marks, etc) described. According to geometrical forms, and scale of processes they are grouped into types: oval, plains, complex, corridors, steep slopes and blown-out remnants area. The North and South parts of the investigated territory differ in density and types of basins, scale of slope erosion. This is determined by the absolute altitude of the territory and the changes of dominating west wind resultant. The oldest or most deflationñaffected basins (plains, complex) dominate North of Lydumas cape moving towards Vingiakope. South of Avikalne cape basins are more scanty and predominated by the oval ones - of medium age. In the North part of investigated territory the southern slopes are subject to a more intensive erosion, in the South part - the northern slopes. There is deficiency of monitoring observations, which makes it difficult to evaluate the effect of breezes, character and intensity of deflation within basins.


Nils-Axel Mörner
Paleogeophysics & Geodynamics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden President INQUA Commission on Sea Level Changes and Coastal Evolution

Sea level rose for glacial eustatic reasons up to about 5000 BP. After that, global sea level has been dominated by the redistribution of ocean water masses (and by that ocean-stored heat). This redistribution of water masses is driven by the interchange of angular momentum between the solid earth and the hydrosphere (in feedback coupling) primarily expressed as changes in the oceanic surface current systems. In view of this, it is very hard to define a true global eustatic signal. This is where and why a dialectic between models and observations enter the sea level debate. According to the glacial loading models, global sea level is now rising by 2.4 mm/year or 1.8 mm/year. The IPCC models have hypothesised of a very rapid rise in the near future, ranging for original wild estimates of 1-3 m in a century to the presently advocated value of 47+37 mm in a century. The INQUA Commission on Sea Level Changes and Coastal Evolution ( hosts the true world specialists on sea level research. This commission has presented an observationally based analysis of the present sea level changes and the changes to be expected in the next century. Both the glacial loading models and the ICPP scenarios are strongly contradicted by observational data for the last 100-150 years that cannot have exceeded a mean rate of 1.0-1.1 mm/year. In the last 300 years, sea level has been oscillation close to the present with peak rates in the period 1890-1930. Sea level fell between 1930 and 1950. The late 20th century lacks any sign of acceleration. Satellite altimetry indicates virtually no changes in the last decade. Therefore, observationally based predictions of future sea level in the year 2100 will give a value of +10 +10 cm or, rather, +5 +15 cm, by this discarding model out-puts by IPCC as well as global loading models. The INQUA Maldives research project has revealed that there, on a regional scale, are absolutely no signs what so ever on any on-going flooding of the Maldives. On the contrary, a distinct sea level fall is recorded at around 1970.
In conclusions, there are firm observationally based reasons to free the world from the condemnation to become extensively flooded in the 21st century AD.
The Baltic “inland sea” includes quite special mechanisms in local and regional sea level changes. The isostatic uplift factor is generally dominant. The observational records of the mode, rates, geometry and processes of uplift seem superior to recent model generalisations. The interchange of water masses between the Kattegatt and the Baltic is of prime importance for the changes in sea level in the Baltic; in the large-scale changes as well as in the small-scale changes (new analyses will be presented for both cases). The tilt in the Baltic water run-off to the outlet is easily affected by any changes in evaporation, precipitation and prevailing air pressure. Thus 3 intense warm periods are recorded as major sea level drops. As a totally new factor, we have to introduce the quite frequent occurrence of significant tsunami waves caused by paleoseismics. Some of those are recorded for 10s of km and have washed up over land and into lakes located 10 m (or even more) above the corresponding mean sea level.


K. Ploom and T. Kiipli
Geological Survey of Estonia:;

Younger Dryas/Holocene transition in regions surrounding Baltic Sea is marked with rare sections of regressive type Yoldia Sea sediments often abraded by Ancylus Lake transgression. In the Baltic Sea basin these sediments are well preserved and reveal sea level and other environmental changes during this period. Especially interesting are sections in the southern part of the Gulf of Finland where steep Baltic Klint was frequently subject to abrasion supplying sediments with specific material. In the deep-sea area (70–90 m b.s.l.) Younger Dryas sediments are represented by homogeneous pinkish-brown varved clays with thickness of 1.3–2.3 m. The pollen spectrum contains 44–73% of grass pollen (Kiipli et al., 1993).
Younger Dryas/Holocene boundary is marked by the rise of tree pollen content, whereby Preboreal sediments contain pine and birch pollen in comparable amounts. Environmental change is marked by change in sediment colour from pinkish brown in Younger Dryas to greyish-brown in Preboreal indicating warmer climate and increased bioproduction. 5–10 cm above the Younger Dryas /Holocene boundary some thin (1–3 mm) silty layers occur marking sea level fall (Billingen Event) and more intensive influx of coarse grained sediments. Thickness of sediments with silt and clay alternation is 5–25 cm. These sediments are covered by 0.5–1.0 m thick homogeneous greyish-brown clays of initial (freshwater) Yoldia Sea. Following upward are 10–25 cm thick grey coloured clayey sediments with horizontal or wavy black interbeds and inclusions. These sulphide rich clays were formed partly in anoxic conditions possibly caused by influx of saline waters and stratification of water-body by salinity. In the uppermost part of Preboreal sediments about 0.5 m thick grey clays with decreasing upward sulphide inclusions occur. Upper boundary is marked by increase of pine pollen and decrease of birch pollen, but lithologically transitional. Lower part of resting Boreal sediments is represented by grey coloured clays with rare sulphide inclusions.
 In shallow water sections (20–70 m b.s.l.) silty layers occur already in the uppermost part of Younger Dryas sediments revealing that fall of water level/climatic amelioration began gradually. Abrupt lwering of water level is marked by the 10–70 cm thick silty sediments followed immediately by sulphide rich clay. Interval of homogeneous greyish brown clays is absent here. Silty material in these sections is carbonate rich which is reflected in a rise of bulk sediment Ca content. Mineralogical analyses revealed carbonates, phosphates and also fragments of Dictyonema shale. All these materials crop out in the coastal escarpment (Baltic Klint) and show that water level fell temporarily to the escarpment level enabling its abrasion.
On the coast sandy and silty complex between lateglacial varved clays (or older sediments) and deposits of Yoldia Sea (or isolated lakes) is often observed. These coarse grained deposits are also interpreted as drainage sediments from the final drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake.
So certain discrepancy between Estonian and latest Swedish data (Andren et al., 1999; 2002; Björck et al., 2001, 2002) is apparent. Both in Estonia and Sweden Preboreal warming is marked, besides the changes in pollen composition, by the change in colour from brownish to greyish clay. In the southern part of the Gulf of Finland the evidence of final drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake is observed 5–10 cm above the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition, while according to Swedish data the drainage occurred c. 35 varve years before it.

Andrén, T., Lindeberg, G., Andrén, E. 2002. Evidence of final drainage of Baltic Ice Lake and the brackish phase of the Yoldia Seain glacial varves from the Baltic Sea. Boreas, 31, 226-238.
Björck, J., Andrén, T.,Wastegård, S., Possnert, G., Schoning, K. 2002. An event stratigraphy of the Last Glacial–Holocene transition in eastern middle Sweden: results from investigations of varved clay and terrestrial sequences. Quaternary Science Rewiews. 21, 1489-1501.
Kiipli, T., Liivrand, E., Lutt, J., Pirrus, R., Rennel, G., 1993. Quaternary cover. In: Lutt, J. and Raukas, A. (eds.). Geology of Estonin shelf. 76–102.

Iwona Pomian
Maritime Museum, 80-751 Gda_sk, O_owianka 9/13 St. E-Mail: I.Pomian@Cmm.Pl

The site was discovered in 1977 by three amateur scuba divers. Preliminary research was initiated in 1978. Ordered by the Regional Museum in Puck the research was directed by W. St_pie_. During preliminary explorations in Puck Lagoon a massive system of timber structures, fascine, and stone and earthen embankments were found scattered over an area of more than 12 hectares. Divers described these structures as lines of fortified landing stages. Because most of the documents created by St_pie_ have been lost, the Polish Maritime Museum in Gda_sk and the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology UMK, which in 1990 decided to continue the research at the Puck site, were forced to start the inventory from the very beginning. During the research one more wreck of a planking boat has been found. Since 1994 the Polish Maritime Museum team has continued the research alone.
Looking at the chronological arrangement of the site, slowly created on the basis of obtained dendrochronological analysis results, and supplemented with a radiological research, it should be assumed that the northern strip of the construction is a continuation of the quay strengthening construction, the root of the harbour pier. It is probably an earlier, or even the earliest stage in the development of the Puck harbour. It is not, however, a part of the pier, coast protection constructions or mooring piles associated with the cribs, located in the central and southern part of the hectare 10G, what suggested Zbierski. On the basis of the latest dendrochronological results it should be assumed that the northern line of the strengthening was constructed in the first half of the tenth century. Six of the samples are dated between year 927+_ 1 (sample 9F/93/D2) and 943+8/_6 (sample 10G/4D/95) (Wa_ny 1997), however all the samples from the construction situated south from the specified above are dated on the twelfth century (area of the crib constructions, samples 4/89 1163, and 6/89 1169), turn of the thirteenth (1/88 1295), or even first half of the fourteenth century (five dates: 5/88 1321 to 10/88 1354) (Wa_ny 1994). The only exception is a fragment of a single pile, lying separately close to the wreck P-2 dated - 907+x/_6. However, the pile could have floated to the area from a construction located further north (Wa_ny 1997).
The principal objective of this dendrochronological study is to arrive at an interpretation of the man-made structures at the bottom of Puck Lagoon in connection with the attempts at reconstructing the medieval shoreline there. This requires on the one hand the developmental stages of the site to be defined on the basis of dendrochronology and its planigraphic inventory, on the other a scientific assessment of the hydrological changes in this area.

Wa_ny T.(1994), Wyniki bada_ dendrochronologicznych stanowiska port w Zatoce Puckiej. Arch. w Centralnym Muzeum Morskim.
Wa_ny T. (1997) Analiza dendrochronologiczna drewna z Pucka (CMM 1997), Arch. w Centralnym Muzeum Morskim.


Alar Rosentau
Institute of Geology University of Tartu 46, Vanemuise Street, 51014 Tartu Estonia

Based on altitudes of the ancient shorelines, the neotectonic uplift data and today’s digital elevation model (DEM), the extensions of the early Baltic Ice Lake (approx. 14,000 yr BP - Björck, 1995) in the Estonian land area was simulated. A database was created of the altitudes of the shoreline remains, described by different researchers (Kessel and Raukas, 1979; Pärna, 1960), and linked to the geographical information system (GIS) to correlate shorelines on different altitudes and establish the palaeo-water plains. In the proximal parts of the ice lake the shorelines were represented by flat plateaus of frontal aquaglacial formations, and in distal parts by coastal scarps and cliffs, which due to the intensive neotectonic uplift, lie on altitudes from 40 to 80 m.a.s.l. Using interpolation techniques of the shoreline data, different palaeo-water plains were created. On the next stage, the palaeo-water plains and Holocene deposits (peat layers) were subtracted from DEM and the extensions and water levels were simulated and presented as palaeo-geographical maps.
An attempt has been made to correlate the early Baltic Ice Lake shorelines with contemporary shorelines of the glacial lake Peipsi, in eastern Estonia (Hang et al, 2002). The similarities and differences between the uplift gradients obtained and shorelines will be discussed during the presentation.


Björck, S. (1995) A review of the history of the Baltic Sea. Quaternary International, 19-40.
Hang, T. Rosentau, A., Kalm, V. (2002) Simulation of glacial Lake Peipsi shorelines. In: NorFa seminar “Environment and settling along the Baltic Sea coasts through time” 3-6 October 2002, Pärnu, Estonia. Abstract Volume, 16-17.
Kessel, H. & Raukas, A. (1979) The Quaternary History of the Baltic. Estonia. In: Gudelis, V. & Königsson, L.-K. (eds) The Quaternary History of the Baltic. Act. Univ. Upsaliensis, 127-146.
Pärna, K. (1960) About geology of the Baltic Ice Lake and the large local ice lakes in Estonia. Bull. Institute of Geology. Academy of Sciences ESSR, 269-278 [in Russian].


Karol Rotnicki* And Anna Pazdur**
*) Institute Of Quaternary Research And Geoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, **) Radiocarbon Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Silesian Technical University, Gliwice, Poland

Analysis of the Holocene deposits building the Gardno_leba Coastal Plain provides new data concerning the problem of the relative sea-level fluctuations as well as Holocene ingressions and regressions of southern Baltic within the Polish middle coast. This problem appeared for the first time when Kurt von Bülow (1933) found marine deposits with Scrobicularia piperata fauna in the area of Gardno-_eba coastal Plain (Polish middle coast). Workers concentrated mainly on amount, age and extent of transgressive and regressive phases of the South Baltic as well as on the sea-level changes and their spatial differentiation.
The Holocene transgression of South Baltic began 10,000 years BP. At that time the sea-level in the middle coast zone was 63 m lower than nowadays and the shoreline was located 50÷60 km north of the present day Polish middle coast. According to former opinions (Rosa, 1963) South Baltic reached the largest extent and the highest level at the end of so-called “Littorina Sea” period (4000 years BP). Its level was 3 m higher than nowadays. After the sea-level fell 3.2 m (4000÷3000 years BP; so-called “Subboreal regression”), it rose again to 0.5÷1.0 m above the present day sea-level (2000÷1500 years BP; so-called “post-Littorina transgression”). According to latest views “Littorina transgression” reached present day sea-level 6300 years BP. South Baltic did not exceed this level till the end of so-called ‘Littorina Sea’ and the highest level during Holocene it reached about 2500÷2600 years BP.
Recent research has been carried out within two projects financed by the National Committee for Research: 1) Origin and development of the barrier-lagoon coast of Gardno-_eba Lowland (No. 6 P04E 023 13), and 2) Causes and age of Middle Holocene regression and Young Holocene ingression of the Baltic on the Polish middle coast (No. 3 P04E 028 23). In this summary, in relation to the Baltic, the term “ingression” is used instead of previously applied in literature term “transgression” (Rotnicki, 2001).
Until now results of this research concerning high and low sea-level stages are as follow:
1. The first ingression reached the maximal extent as the Boreal period was succeeded by the Atlantic period ( 8200÷7800 radiocarbon years BP). The sea reached the level that was nearing the present day sea-level (0 ÷ -1 b.s.l.). Rate of sea-level rise was high (35.4 mm yr-1) and was caused by high intensity of glaci-isostatic uplift of Scandinavia.
2. The period of stabilisation followed between 7800÷7500 radiocarbon years BP). In that time the relative sea-level changed slightly.
3. In the period 7500÷6700 years BP the sea-level lowered of about 2-2.5 m.
4. Afterward, since 6700 till 6000 years ago sea-level raised again and reached the ordinate ca +0.5 ÷ +0.75 m a.s.l. The stabilisation lasted about 500 years.
5. A very distinct regression appeared in the period between 5500 and 4500 years BP. In that time the sea-level lowered to – 4 - - 4.5 m below s.l. It caused regression of the coast line and formation of a peaty coastal plain that top lies –4 ÷ -2 m a.s.l. As yet the exact time of this lowest Mid-Holocene sea-level as well as its causes are not known.
6. The young Holocene ingression followed after 4500 years BP and the sea-level reached the ordinate about o m..a.s.l. and reached during storm surges to the height of 1-2 m a.s.l.
Similar changes of the South Baltic level have not been found yet west and east of the middle coast, i.e. in the Pommeranian Bay area and in the litoral zone of the Gda_sk Bay, respectively. History of the relative sea-level changes during Holocene is different in particular parts of the southern Baltic coast and can be explained by glacio-isostatic relaxation and other tectonic movements (Mörner, 1980), especially during the younger part of the Holocene.

Bülow K. von, 1933: Ein neuer Fund von Litorinaablagerungen. Dohrniana, 12: 65-76.
Rosa B., 1963: O rozwoju morfologicznym wybrze_a Polski w _wietle dawnych form brzegowych. Studia Soc. Sci. Torunensis, C-5: 1-174.
Mörner N. A., 1980: Fennoscandian Uplift: Geological Data and Their Geodynamical Implication. W: N. A. Mörner (Red.): Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy, Wiley & Son, 251-284.
Rotnicki K., 2001: Wzgl_dne zmiany poziomu Ba_tyku po_udniowego na polskim wybrzezu _rodkowym w holocenie w _wietle bada_ Niziny Gardnie_sko-_ebskiej.


Spiridonov M.A., Zhamoida V.A.
All-Russia Geological Institute (VSEGEI); Sredny pt.,74; 199106 St.Petersburg; Russia;

The extent of the coastline of the Russian Sector of the eastern Gulf of Finland is more than 1000 km, its area exceeds 5 000 km2. The degree of approximation of such calculations is connected with essential variability of the coastal zone. The coastal zone, in this case, includes area of the near-shore bottom of the gulf up to the sea depths of intensive wave influence and also the seaside land, where the landscape forming processes are in many respects connected with the influence of the modern sea basin.
The underwater part of the coastal zone at the eastern Gulf of Finland extends to the sea for several kilometers up to the sea depths 15-20 m. The overland part of the coastal zone partially overlaps a surface of Litorina terrace, being confined by the forms of coastal marine and eolian accumulation.
Periodic and rapid changes of shore line position connected with the various hydrometeorological phenomena (wind-effected fluctuation of sea level) are most representative for considered coastal zone. In this connection the trend and activity of coastal geomorphologic processes and phenomena are frequently cardinally varied. As a rule the intensive various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone are also relevant and representative.
Everything that is connected to so-called exogenic geodynamics and hydrodynamics of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland takes place in conditions of low intensive tectonic movements, which, as a whole, control sluggish uplifting of the northern coast and slow downing of the southern cost. The main factors controlling development of the coastal zone come out from consequence of the last stages of geologic development of the area (sea bottom). For example, the main features of configuration of the coastal zone were formed during degradation of the glacial cover of the Luga and Neva phases at the end of Valdai glaciation.
The coast-line of the Luga and Kopora bays, as well as of the whole eastern Gulf of Finland, represents the rounded projections of the glacial tongues of degrading glacial cover that is combined with relicts of regional glacial accumulative landforms. In the modern form of relief of the coastal zone the glacial substratum, first of all, is reflected in appearance of the moraine tongues and boulder accumulation. The limno-glacial and ancient sea basins of the late-last glacial time are displayed in terraces levels above and below modern shore line, and also in the complex of the coast accumulation forms of relief. The processes of the modern morpho- and litho-dynamic are very changeable and locally expressed in the different accumulative and erosion forms of relief.
The anthropogenic activity during last centuries results in essential reconstruction of the conditions of existence and development of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Moreover, some parts of the gulf coast were completely transformed by anthropogenic activity that sometimes brought to the negative ecological effect and originated real ecological hazards.


Trimonis E., Vaikutien_ G.
Institute of Geology and Geography, Vilnius, Lithuania e–mail:;

The Baltic Sea water level was different during all its stages after deglaciation. The greatest fluctuations occured at time intervals when the Baltic Sea had no connection with the ocean (periglacial lakes, Baltic Ice Lake, Ancylus Lake). All water level changes affected the processes of sedimentation and left lithological, paleobotanical, mineralogical, geochemical, etc. traces in the bottom stratum. Their studying in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea was based on examination of sediments between the deep part and the coastal zone – in the profile extending from the southern slope of the Gotland Basin (Site PSh 2567, 56008’9’’ N, 19022’0’’ E, depth 109 m) across the northern part of the Gdansk Basin till the Curonian Spit (Borehole 165, 55040’11’’ N, 21006’27’’ E). The sediments from the latter borehole have been deposited in the nearshore, whereas the upper (0.8 m) sand layer is a result of eolian sedimentation (Bitinas et al., 2000).
The sea–level changes of the Late Glacial also continued later due to a sophisticated interaction of eustatic and tectonic factors. In the initial stages of the Baltic Sea the periglacial lakes accumulated clay from eroded tills. The fall of sea–level in the Baltic Ice Lake resulted in thindispersed clay replacement by silty clayey muds with silt interlayers. This event also is clearly proved by diatom complexes with a decreasing portion of planktonic and increasing portion of epiphytic diatoms. At the Yoldia Sea stage the southern part of the Gotland Basin accumulated dark grey clay, whereas the more shallow part of the sea in the eastern direction – silty clayey mud with silt lenses and interlayers. An intensive reaction of sedimentation processes to sea–level decreasing occured at the end of the Ancylus stage. The southern slope of the Gotland Basin has preserved the traces of bottom erosion whereas the variations of sediments in the eastern direction are very pronounced. In the northern slope of the Gdansk Basin the greyish brown clay was replaced by bluish grey mud. In the eastward the grey fine silty mud, deposited in the Ancylus Lake, was replaced by silty clayey mud. Judging from palynological data the overlying layer of grey coarse silt had been deposited during the Boreal. The sea–level changes are also proved by diatoms. It is typical that diatoms of the Ancylus Lake can be clearly divided into two complexes. At the end of this stage the complex of fresh water diatoms was replaced by another one with epiphytic Opephora martyi species reflecting sea–level decreasing. The eustatic sea–level changes in the Litorina and Postlitorina stages in the deep part of the Gotland Basin were traced by compositional changes of clays, in the more shallow eastern part – of fine silty and silty clayey muds and in the nearshore zone where sand accumulation prevailed at the appointed time formed peat and sapropel layers. The variations of sedimentation processes induced by sea–level changes are also confirmed by different diatom complexes in sediments.


Bitinas A., Damu_yt_ A., Hütt G., Martma T., Rupl_nait_ G., Stan_ikait_ M., _saityt_ D. & Vaikmäe R., 2000 – Stratigraphic correlation of Late Weichselian and Holocene deposits in the Lithuanian coastal region. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Geol., 49, 3: 200–217.


Vassiljev J., Saarse L., Miidel A.
Institute of Geology at Tallinn Technical University, Estonia pst. 7, 10143 Tallinn, Estonia. E-mail:,,

Coastal formations around the Gulf of Finland have been exhaustingly studied during the last century (Ramsay, 1929; Sauramo, 1958; Eronen, 1974; Kessel and Raukas, 1979; Eronen et al., 1993 etc.). This includes large-scale geomorphological studies, levelling of coastal formation, and biostratigraphy of the coastal lakes. As a result, many different maps on the shoreline isobases were compiled.
Present study summarises the available data on the coastal formation of the Litorina transgression at c. 7000 yr BP. We complemented the Estonian database of the Litorina coastal formations, used for trend-surface analysis (Miidel, 1995) and primary compiled by H. Kessel, up to 132 sites, including 16 radiocarbon-dated sites. From adjoining areas of Russia 42 levelled coastal formations (Shmaenok et al., 1962) and 8 radiocarbon-dated sites and from the southern Finland 31 biostratigraphically studied and radiocarbon-dated sites were used (Eronen et al., 1993). This database was analysed using a point kriging interpolation with linear trend approach. The database includes also sites that do not correspond to the Litorina transgression at c. 7000 yr BP due to dating and levelling errors. To revise the database a combination of different methods were applied. The sites with elevation visually not matching with sites nearby were eliminated. Then residuals for every site were calculated and sites with large residuals (>1 m) were discarded. The final database consisting of 75 sites from Estonia, 14 from Finland and 39 from Russia was used to simulate the Litorina Sea shoreline. It occurred that all isobases are not straight lines, especially in the eastern side of the Gulf of Finland (Fig. 1). 15- and 20-m isobases seems to be inclined to NW direction compared with the previously presented. Isobases in the western part of the gulf match well with the earlier reconstructions. At the same time, isobases of the eastern part of study area are more broadly distributed as a result of the metachronous Litorina limit and/or due to the “hinge” line which was defined in this area (Eronen, 1974; Donner, 1980).

Eronen, M. (1974), The history of the Litorina Sea and associated holocene events. Commentationes Physico-Mathematicae, 44, 4, 195 p.
Eronen, M. Glückert, G., van de Plassche, O., van der Plicht, J., Rajala, P. and Rantala, P. (1993), The postglacial radicarbon-dated shoreline data in Finland for the Nordic Data Base of Land Uplift and Shorelines. Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Ski), Project NKS/KAN 3, subproject, 1992-93, Stencil. 43p.
Donner, J. (1980), The Determination and Dating of Synchronous Late Quaternary Shorelines in Fennoscandia. In: N.A. Mörner (ed.), Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy. Wiley, 285-296.
Kessel, H. and Raukas, A. (1979), The Quaternary history of the Baltic, Estonia. In: Gudelis, V. and Königsson, L.-K. (eds.), The Quaternary history of the Baltic. Acta Univ. Ups. Annum Quingentesimum Celebrantis. 1, 127-146.
Miidel, A. (1995), An attempt to apply trend-surface analysis to the study of raised shorelines of the Baltic Sea in Estonia. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Geol., 44, 97-110.
Ramsay, W. (1929), Niveauverschiebungen, Eisgestaute seen und rezession des Inlandeises in Estland. Fennia, 52, 48 p.
Sauramo, M. (1958), Die Geschichte der Ostsee. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennicae, Ser. A, III, 51, 522 p.
Shmaenok, A.I., Sammet, E.J., Belenitskaya, G.A., Verbova, I.M., Korneeva, T.L., Ronshin, N.I. and Feigelson, M.M. (1962), Geology of the Narva, Luga and Sisty River lower courses. Report on the complex geological mapping of scale 1:200000). Complex geological expedition of Leningrad. Manuscript in North west Geological Survey of Russia (in Russian).


Roberto A. Violante
Argentina Hydrographic Office, Department of Oceanography, Division of Marine Geology and Geophysics Av. Montes de Oca 2124 (C1270ABV) Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

Mar Chiquita is the only coastal lagoon linked to a littoral barrier presently active in Argentina (see figure). It is located at 37º40´S-58º23´W, covers an area of 46 km2 and its maximum water depth is less than 3 m. Although it belongs to the same coastal environment and paleogeographical framework as Samborombón bay (see Violante et al., this volume), its evolutive characteristics are different since the lagoon is located in a higher energy and fully marine setting. It has been previously stated (Schnack et al., 1982) that the lagoon developed following the formation of an estuarine environment associated to a barrier growth during the last marine regression, but later studies (Violante, 1992) allowed to associate its origin to the previous transgressive phase under the influence of pre-Holocene relict reliefs.
At the beginning of the Holocene, when the present shelf was subaerially exposed and a rapid transgressive event took place, a headland located near Villa Gesell (see figure) extended seawards facing to the incoming waves. It induced a change in the wave refraction pattern as approaching the coast resulting in a decreasing wave energy density towards the adjacent embayments so originating diverging longshore currents and sediment transport in opposite directions around the headland. Attached littoral barriers formed there favored by the large sediment availability on the shelf. As sea level rising proceeded, the erosional shoreface retreat produced the landwards migration of the entire system. The environments evolved northwards of the headland resulted in the formation of Samborombón bay (Violante et al., this volume). South of the headland littoral transport of sands made the barrier to prograde southwestwards originating a semi-enclosed bay-like body at the backbarrier side where fine sediments deposited. As the system moved inlands and grew southwestwards the bay-like body progressively expanded and finally reached its maximum extension at the highest sea-level stand (6,000 years B.P.). During the following regressive event the barrier continued prograding in the same direction and closed the bay, which became a coastal lagoon connected to the sea through a tidal inlet open at the southern extreme of the barrier. The lagoon was then progressively reduced in size due to the drop in sea-level and sediment infilling until reaching its present configuration. At present, a flood-tidal delta developes landwards of the inlet (Isla Mendy, 1989). Historical data as well as field surveys show inversions in the littoral drift for the last few hundreds of years (Fasano et al., 1982, Isla Mendy, 1989) indicating temporal fluctuations (probably also occurred during former evolutive stages) of the net littoral drift.

Fasano, J., Hernández, M., Isla, F. and Schnack, E., 1982. Aspectos evolutivos y ambientales de la laguna Mar Chiquita (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Oceanológica Acta, Symp. Int. Lagunas Costeras, Bordeaux (Francia): 285-292.
Isla Mendy, F., 1989. Modelo evolutivo comparado de playa y boca de micromareas: Mar Chiquita, Argentina. XII Congreso Español de Sedimentología, Com, Leioa, Bilbao, España: 121-124.
Schnack, E., Fasano, J. and Isla, F., 1982. The evolution of Mar Chiquita lagoon coast, Argentina. In: Holocene sea level fluctuations, magnitude and causes. Proc. Int. Symp. on sea level changes in the last 15,000 yrs., IGCP 61: 143-155.
Violante, R.A., 1992. Ambientes sedimentarios asociados a un sistema de barrera litoral del Holoceno en la llanura costera al sur de Villa Gesell, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Rev. Asociación Geológica Argentina, 47 (2): 201-214.


Ma_gorzata Witak, Bo_ena Bogaczewicz-Adamczak, Karolina Bory_, Angelika Mayer University of Gda_sk,
Institute of Oceanography,Al. Marsz. J. Pi_sudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland,

The coastal zone of the Southern Baltic Sea is an excellent area for palaeoecological studies after its deglaciation. There are many places with littoral and sublittoral sediments (Hel Peninsula and Vistula Bar ) as well as lacustrine and lagoon’s deposits (Mod_a Lake, Gardno Lake, Sarbsko Lake, _arnowieckie Lake, Puck Lagoon, Vistula Lagoon) which were formed during the Holocene marine transgressions. The present study is the attempt of the correlation of the fossil diatom flora preserved in sediments taken from different part of the Polish Coast. The aim of the study is to reconstruct environmental changes in the evolution of various types of coastal basins during transgressions and regressions of the Baltic Sea in the last 7 000 years BP.
The material studied originates from 15 sediment cores taken along the Polish coastal zone from Wolin until Vistula Lagoon. In most cases the stratigraphic position of sediments was determined based on pollen and 14C data. The diatom analysis was carried out according to Battarbee’s (1986) method. In each sample c. 500 diatom frustules were counted in order to estimate the relative abundance of individual taxa. Based on the species composition, the relative abundance of the predominant taxa, and various ecological groups (habitat and salinity) diatom assemblage zones (DAZ) were distinguished in each core.
The comparison of results of diatom analyses and the correlation of appropriate assemblages indicate that the most streaking changes in the environmental status of different types of basins in the last 7 000 years BP are connected with two phases of marine transgressions: Littorina Sea in the Late Atlantic/Early Subboreal boundary and Post-Littorina Sea in Subatlantic chronozone. In spite of significant differences in floristic spectra in many sites, which are related to their local unique environmental conditions, in the fossil diatom flora preserved in transgression sediments the abundance of euhalobous and mesohalobous taxa were observed. Thus, we can conclude that fossil diatom assemblages is a very useful tool in the reconstruction of the past coastal lines.

Battarbee, R.W., (1986), Diatom analysis, In: Berglund, B.E. (ed.) Handbook of Holocene palaecology and palaeohydrology, 527-570, London, John Wiley and sons. Ltd.


Tycjan Wodzinowski
Marine Geology Departament, Institute of Oceanography Gd_sk University Al. Pi_sudskiego 46 81-378 Gdynia e’mail:

 The new method of a detailed morphodynamic registration of sandy beaches has been presented. The digital oriented photograms have been taken from a stabilized point at least once a day. Occasionally also more often. For example every hour during storm cycle. The analyses of the photograms are performed by digital mode using special computer software. This digital beach monitoring of the Polish Baltic coast was initiated in summer 2002. The test fields at Polanka red_owska near Gdynia and Ch_apowo near W_adys_awowo were selected. The beach areas about 200 m along the shore were registered there.
The Minolta Dimage S304 digital camera was used. The coordinates of the georeferences points were determined in UTM zone 34 WGS-84 by DGPS set Garmin production. The photogrametrical transformation for the orthogonal pattern was created in TNTmips 6.4 program in cooperation with Department of Operational Oceanography of the Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
The selected examples of short-term changes of the beach relief have been presented. The range of the spatiotemporal transformations related to different periods (hours, days, months etc.) are demonstrated. The comparison analyses related to registration possibility of the air photos and satellite images are discussed. This method was adapted to Polish Baltic coast condition in relation to the monitoring of the ocean coast (cf.: K. T. Holland, R. A. Holman, T. C. Lippman, J. Stanley, N. Plant., 1997; Stockdon H. M., Holman R. A., 2000; Konicki K. M., Holman R. A., 2000).

K. T. Holland, R. A. Holman, T. C. Lippman, J. Stanley, N. Plant, (1997), „Practical use of video imagery in Nearshore Oceanographic Field Studies”, IEEE Jurnal of oceanic engineering, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 69-101.
H. F. Stockdon, R. A. Holman, (2000), „Estimation of wave phase speed and nearshore bathymetry from video imagery”, Jurnal of geographical research, vol. 105, no. C9, pp. 22.015-22.033.
K. M. Konicki, R. A. Holman, (2000), „The statistics and kinematcs of transverse sand bars on an open coast“, Marine Geology, 169, pp. 69-101.


L. F. Yuspina P.P. Shirshov
Institute of Oceanology, R AS, Atlantic Branch, Kaliningrad,

Sediment cores from Gdansk and Gotland basins were studied for their spore-pollen assemblages. Absolute abundance change and abundance change within the spore and pollen assemblage was used for the stratigraphical subdivision and correlation of the bottom sediment thickness.
The Upper Quaternary grey and brown varved clays of the Baltic Ice Lake Stage are characterize by low abundance pollen and spore and high abundance of the herb pollen (to 40-50%). The stratigraphical subdivision of the Upper Quaternary sediments was based on absolute abundance change and abundance change within herb pollen. The Baltic Ice Lake sediments are divided into three local pollen assemblage zones.
Lower Holocene dark striped clays of Yoldia Sea Stage are characterize by the gradually growth of absolute abundance of pollen grains (more than one thousand of pollen grains per gram of sediment). The tree pollen increases and herb pollen decreases, Betula pollen shows extreme abundance (to 41%). Yoldia clays can be divided into two local pollen assemblage zones. Ancylus Lake Stage homogenous gray clays are characterize by predominance of Pinus pollen (to 90-98%). There are two local pollen assemblage zones in Ancylus clays.
Middle and Upper Holocene laminated muds of Litorina and Post-Litorina Sea Stages are characterize by abundance maximal of Quersetum mistum pollen (Tilia, Ulmus, Quercus, Alnus, Fagus, Carpinus and Corylus). The absolute pollen abundance sharply increase (to 200 thousand of pollen grains per gram of sediment).