The PhD student will be able to address, in an independent way, the different problems that currently exist both in terms of historical/artistic/ archaeological, and scientific and technical knowledge. Several university departments are involved (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Computer Science, Mathematics, Earth Sciences) and research performing organizations (CNR, and others) to cover all the scientific expertise necessary for the protection of Cultural Heritage and the environment. The PhD program plans to study the environment correlating the environmental quality and certain special issues with indices of quality and stability (including thermodynamics) of the Cultural Heritage. This requires the ability not only to measure the effects of the environment and occur on the kinetics of the works on display, but also through models and algorithms to correlate the results of these measures with specific aspects of weather modification. This approach will require the differentiated characterization between indoor and outdoor systems, so making the reality of the museum environment to be treated as environment. The program will not be limited to the traditional processes of alteration, already widely discussed at the initial levels of university courses, but to extend these studies to less real, but equally important processes assigned to phenomena such as the salt effect, diffusion, osmosis, differential solubility, reactions acceptor/donor, in situ studies, identification of markers, monitoring, microclimate, identification of the relationship between material and microorganisms, correlation between historical artifacts and features of the site, effects of specific environments (deep water, extreme temperatures). Ultimately, this PhD course aims to prepare an advanced scientific professional who could find suitable employment in scientific and Cultural Heritage institutions of various types, able to work independently and able to manage research using advanced methods, but with a constant awareness of the interaction between knowledge areas. The PhD courses involve 3 years of study and research, with a final thesis that can be written in either English or Italian, aiming to develop a human capacity building shared and coordinated at European level.